Jess Holguin OTD, OTR/L
Associate Professor of Clinical Occupational Therapy
Jess Holguin works extensively with individuals who have experienced head injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, multitrauma, orthodepic conditions and other medically complex conditions. His clinical expertise derives from many years of experience, including his time as senior clinician for neurorehabilitation at St. Jude’s regional brain injury rehabilitation center.
Dr. Holguin has been an invited lecturer on topics such as neurorehabilitation, cognition and visual perception at the University of Southern California and the Braille Institute/Center for the Partially Sighted. As an associate professor of clinical occupational therapy, Dr. Holguin treats patients at Keck Hospital of USC, serves as mentor to faculty, residents and students, and develops programs targeting enhanced participation in meaningful activities for patients experiencing neurological dysfunction.
As a former member of the USC Well Elderly 2 randomized controlled trial team, Dr. Holguin contributed to the analysis and interpretation of research findings. His research interests include neurological rehabilitation, successful aging and the interrelated nature of well-being and participation in meaningful activity.
Doctorate of Occupational Therapy (OTD)
2011 | University of Southern California
Master of Arts (MA)
in Occupational Therapy
2005 | University of Southern California
Bachelor of Science (BS)
in Occupational Therapy
1996 | University of Southern California
Liew, S.-L., Schweighofer, N., Cole, J. H., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Lo, B. P., Han, L. K. M., Hahn, T., Schmaal, L., Donnelly, M. R., Jeong, J. N., Wang, Z., Abdullah, A., Kim, J. H., Hutton, A. M., Barisano, G., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Ciullo, V., Bastos Conforto, A., Dacosta-Aguayo, R., DiCarlo, J. A., Domin, M., Dula, A. N., Egorova-Brumley, N., Feng, W., Geranmayeh, F., Gregory, C. M., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K., Holguin, J. A., Hordacre, B., Jahanshad, N., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lin, D. J., Liu, J., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mataro, M., Mohamed, F. B., Olafson, E. R., Park, G., Piras, F., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Sanossian, N., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Taga, M., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C. J., Wittenberg, G. F., Wolf, S. L., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Cramer, S. C., & Thompson, P. M. (2023). Association of brain age, lesion volume, and functional outcome in patients with stroke. Neurology, 100(20), e2103-e2113. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000207219 Show abstract
Background and objectives. Functional outcomes after stroke are strongly related to focal injury measures. However, the role of global brain health is less clear. Here, we examined the impact of brain age, a measure of neurobiological aging derived from whole brain structural neuroimaging, on post-stroke outcomes, with a focus on sensorimotor performance. We hypothesized that more lesion damage would result in older brain age, which would in turn be associated with poorer outcomes. Related, we expected that brain age would mediate the relationship between lesion damage and outcomes. Finally, we hypothesized that structural brain resilience, which we define in the context of stroke as younger brain age given matched lesion damage, would differentiate people with good versus poor outcomes.
Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a multi-site dataset of 3D brain structural MRIs and clinical measures from ENIGMA Stroke Recovery. Brain age was calculated from 77 neuroanatomical features using a ridge regression model trained and validated on 4,314 healthy controls. We performed a three-step mediation analysis with robust mixed-effects linear regression models to examine relationships between brain age, lesion damage, and stroke outcomes. We used propensity score matching and logistic regression to examine whether brain resilience predicts good versus poor outcomes in patients with matched lesion damage.
Results. We examined 963 patients across 38 cohorts. Greater lesion damage was associated with older brain age (β=0.21; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.38, P=0.015), which in turn was associated with poorer outcomes, both in the sensorimotor domain (β=-0.28; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.15, P<0.001) and across multiple domains of function (β=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.06, P<0.001). Brain age mediated 15% of the impact of lesion damage on sensorimotor performance (95% CI: 3%, 58%, P=0.01). Greater brain resilience explained why people have better outcomes, given matched lesion damage (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08, P=0.004).
Conclusions. We provide evidence that younger brain age is associated with superior post-stroke outcomes and modifies the impact of focal damage. The inclusion of imaging-based assessments of brain age and brain resilience may improve the prediction of post-stroke outcomes compared to focal injury measures alone, opening new possibilities for potential therapeutic targets.
Harding, P., Holguin, J., & Margetis, J. L. (2022, November 1). Enhancing client and caregiver training: Content and process considerations for supplemental multimedia education. SIS Quarterly Practice Connections, 7(4). Full text
Holguin, J. A., Margetis, J. L., Narayan, A., Yoneoka, G. M., & Irimia, A. (2022). Vascular cognitive impairment after mild stroke: Connectomic insights, neuroimaging, and knowledge translation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 905979. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.905979 Show abstract
Contemporary stroke assessment protocols have a limited ability to detect vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), especially among those with subtle deficits. This lesser-involved categorization, termed mild stroke (MiS), can manifest compromised processing speed that negatively impacts cognition. From a neurorehabilitation perspective, research spanning neuroimaging, neuroinformatics, and cognitive neuroscience supports that processing speed is a valuable proxy for complex neurocognitive operations, insofar as inefficient neural network computation significantly affects daily task performance. This impact is particularly evident when high cognitive loads compromise network efficiency by challenging task speed, complexity, and duration. Screening for VCI using processing speed metrics can be more sensitive and specific. Further, they can inform rehabilitation approaches that enhance patient recovery, clarify the construct of MiS, support clinician-researcher symbiosis, and further clarify the occupational therapy role in targeting functional cognition. To this end, we review relationships between insult-derived connectome alterations and VCI, and discuss novel clinical approaches for identifying disruptions of neural networks and white matter connectivity. Furthermore, we will frame knowledge translation efforts to leverage insights from cutting-edge structural and functional connectomics research. Lastly, we highlight how occupational therapists can provide expertise as knowledge brokers acting within their established scope of practice to drive substantive clinical innovation.
Liew, S., Zavaliangos‐Petropulu, A., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Hayward, K. S., Lohse, K. R., Juliano, J. M., Assogna, F., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dimyan, M. A., Dula, A. N., Ermer, E., Etherton, M. R., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hadidchi, S., Holguin, J. A., Hwang, D. H., Jung, S., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Khoshab, N., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Piras, F., Ramos‐Murguialday, A., Richard, G., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Rondina, J. M., Rost, N. S., Sanossian, N., Schweighofer, N., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K. W., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Villringer, A., Ward, N. S., Werden, E., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Cramer, S. C., & Thompson, P. M. (2022). The ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group: Big data neuroimaging to study brain–behavior relationships after stroke. Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25015 Show abstract
The goal of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta‐Analysis (ENIGMA) Stroke Recovery working group is to understand brain and behavior relationships using well‐powered meta‐ and mega‐analytic approaches. ENIGMA Stroke Recovery has data from over 2,100 stroke patients collected across 39 research studies and 10 countries around the world, comprising the largest multisite retrospective stroke data collaboration to date. This article outlines the efforts taken by the ENIGMA Stroke Recovery working group to develop neuroinformatics protocols and methods to manage multisite stroke brain magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral and demographics data. Specifically, the processes for scalable data intake and preprocessing, multisite data harmonization, and large‐scale stroke lesion analysis are described, and challenges unique to this type of big data collaboration in stroke research are discussed. Finally, future directions and limitations, as well as recommendations for improved data harmonization through prospective data collection and data management, are provided.
Liew, S.-L., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Schweighofer, N., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Lohse, K. R., Banaj, N., Barisano, G., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Ciullo, V., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dula, A. N., Egorova, N., Feng, W., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K. S., Holguin, J. A., Hordacre, B., Hwang, D. H., Kautz, S. A., Salah Khlif, M., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lo, B., Liu, J., Lin, D., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Nordvik, J. E., Petoe, M. A., Piras, F., Raju, S., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Thijs, V. N., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C. J., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Wolf, S. L., Cramer, S. C., Thompson, P. M., & ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group. (2021). Smaller spared subcortical nuclei are associated with worse post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes in 28 cohorts worldwide. Brain Communications, 3(4), fcab254. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab254 Show abstract
Up to two-thirds of stroke survivors experience persistent sensorimotor impairments. Recovery relies on the integrity of spared brain areas to compensate for damaged tissue. Deep grey matter structures play a critical role in the control and regulation of sensorimotor circuits. The goal of this work is to identify associations between volumes of spared subcortical nuclei and sensorimotor behaviour at different timepoints after stroke. We pooled high-resolution T1-weighted MRI brain scans and behavioural data in 828 individuals with unilateral stroke from 28 cohorts worldwide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear mixed-effects models related post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour to non-lesioned subcortical volumes (Bonferroni-corrected, P < 0.004). We tested subacute (≤90 days) and chronic (≥180 days) stroke subgroups separately, with exploratory analyses in early stroke (≤21 days) and across all time. Sub-analyses in chronic stroke were also performed based on class of sensorimotor deficits (impairment, activity limitations) and side of lesioned hemisphere. Worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with a smaller ipsilesional thalamic volume in both early (n = 179; d = 0.68) and subacute (n = 274, d = 0.46) stroke. In chronic stroke (n = 404), worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.52) and nucleus accumbens (d = 0.39) volumes, and a larger ipsilesional lateral ventricle (d = −0.42). Worse chronic sensorimotor impairment specifically (measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment; n = 256) was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.72) and larger lateral ventricle (d = −0.41) volumes, while several measures of activity limitations (n = 116) showed no significant relationships. In the full cohort across all time (n = 828), sensorimotor behaviour was associated with the volumes of the ipsilesional nucleus accumbens (d = 0.23), putamen (d = 0.33), thalamus (d = 0.33) and lateral ventricle (d = −0.23). We demonstrate significant relationships between post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour and reduced volumes of deep grey matter structures that were spared by stroke, which differ by time and class of sensorimotor measure. These findings provide additional insight into how different cortico-thalamo-striatal circuits support post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes.
Kuo, G., Cen, S., Zheng, L., Vazquez, A., Margetis, J., Holguin, J., Trummer, K., Emanuel, B., Kim-Tenser, M., & Bulic, S. (2018). Is the slope of optic nerve sheath diameter change in malignant middle cerebral artery stroke associated with mortality outcomes? Neurology, 90(15 Supplement), S40.006. Full text Show abstract
Objective. To investigate the association between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) strokes, progression to decompressive craniectomy and mortality outcomes.
Background. Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke is a life-threatening condition with reported mortality of 80%, due to space-occupying cerebral edema and increased compartmental intracranial pressure (ICP). In current practice, decompressive craniectomy is known to improve mortality and functional outcomes. However, patient selection for surgical intervention can be difficult at times. Use of non-invasive surrogates for ICP could be valuable in managing malignant MCA syndromes. One possibility is through ONSD measurements, which has been shown to correlate to elevated intracranial pressures (ICPs) in studies across adult and pediatric patients. Currently, its utility in MCA syndromes has yet to be defined.
Design/Methods. 136 CT scans (1–6 per subject) from charts of 62 patients in a tertiary academic center were reviewed using previously published methodology. The outcomes of malignant MCA strokes were examined by utilizing mixed effects models to evaluate daily rate of change in optic parameters between deceased and non-deceased groups, craniotomy and non-craniotomy groups.
Results. Daily rate of change in optic parameters were significantly greater in deceased patients than non-deceased patients (0.16 vs −0.001μm/day, p=0.056 for ipsilateral optic nerve sheath (ONS); 0.32 vs −0.001 μm/day, p<0.0001 for contralateral ONS; 0.24 vs −0.0001 μm/day, p=0.0007 for averaged ONS, respectively). Daily rate of change in optic parameters did not differ significantly between craniectomy and non-craniectomy groups (0.036 vs 0.045μm/day, p=0.88 for ipsilateral ONS; 0.02 vs 0.07 μm/day, p=0.34 for contralateral ONS; 0.03 vs 0.06 μm/day, p=0.60 for average ONS, respectively).
Conclusions. A greater rate of change in ONSD is associated with greater mortality. Curiously, the rate of change of ONSD was not significantly affected by surgical intervention, possibly indicating that ONSD is indicative of cerebral edema and not necessarily ICP.
Carlson, M., Jackson, J., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Holguin, J., Lai, M. Y., Marterella, A., Vigen, C., Gleason, S., Lam, C., Azen, S., & Clark, F. (2014). Predictors of retention among African American and Hispanic older adult research participants in the Well Elderly 2 randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 33(3), 357-382. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464812471444 Show abstract
The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60 to 95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels.
October 22, 2013
85 Trojan alumni and faculty will be presenting at the 2013 Conference of the Occupational Therapy Association of California, Oct. 24-27 at the Sacramento (Calif.) Convention Center. On the evening of Friday Oct. 25, be sure to join your USC Trojan Family at the conference's alumni cocktail mixer.…