Recent Chan Publications
Consistent with the Division's ongoing pursuit of innovation and production of knowledge, Chan faculty, staff, and PhD students work at the cutting-edge of their respective fields of expertise. In addition to doing funded research, members of the Chan division generate written publications which contribute to the scholarship of their fields. Peer-reviewed publications authored or co-authored by Chan faculty, staff and PhD students from the last three years are listed below using the American Psychological Association's citation style.
Pyatak, E. A., & Lee, E. S. (Eds.) (2023). 50 studies every occupational therapist should know. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780197630402.001.0001 Show abstract
50 Studies Every Occupational Therapist Should Know presents a curated collection of the most influential studies guiding occupational therapy practice today. The text is organized into six practice areas, following the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) framework for OT practice: productive aging, health and wellness, work and industry, rehabilitation and disability, children and youth, and mental health. Each section contains a series of chapters, each of which outlines the design, findings, and implications of a key study from that area of practice. Each chapter also includes a case scenario designed to illustrate how the findings of the study relate to clinical practice. This text will be a valuable resource for occupational therapy students and practitioners seeking to understand the breadth, rigor, and trustworthiness of research informing occupational therapy practice, and for others interested in better understanding the profession.
Keywords. Occupational therapy, evidence-based practice, qualitative research, quantitative research, rehabilitation, allied health
Fukumura, Y. E., & Roll, S. C. (2023). Injury prevention through ergonomic assessment, education, and intervention: Healthy backpack wearing in school-aged children. In E. A. Pyatak & E. S. Lee (Eds.), 50 studies every occupational therapist should know. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780197630402.003.0015 Show abstract
Occupational therapists apply a holistic and transactional approach that differentiates them from other professionals who provide injury prevention services. The study reviewed in this chapter provides one example of how occupational therapists can provide an ergonomics intervention to promote healthy habits and postures, even in non-work settings. Specifically, the study by Feingold and Jacobs describes how a 30-minute ergonomics education session tailored to middle school children resulted in a change in backpack-wearing habits and reports of discomfort. This study is related to a national campaign led by occupational therapists for backpack safety awareness that includes an annual backpack awareness day at the start of each school year in the fall. Additional studies are noted that provide support for occupational therapy’s role in promoting healthy behaviors and reducing occupational and work-related injuries both within the profession and in other areas through ergonomic assessments, education, intervention, and product design.
Keywords. ergonomics, posture, school-aged child, trunk, musculoskeletal, occupational therapy, health education, prevention
Awada, M., Becerik-Gerber, B., Liu, R., Seyedrezaei, M., Lu, Z., Xenakis, M., Lucas, G., Roll, S. C., & Narayanan, S. (2023). Ten questions concerning the impact of environmental stress on office workers. Building and Environment, 229, 109964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2022.109964 Show abstract
We regularly face stress during our everyday activities, to the extent that stress is recognized by the World Health Organization as the epidemic of the 21st century. Stress is how humans respond physically and psychologically to adjustments, experiences, conditions, and circumstances in their lives. While there are many reasons for stress, work and job pressure remain the main cause. Thus, companies are increasingly interested in creating healthier, more comfortable, and stress-free offices for their workers. The indoor environment can induce environmental stress when it cannot satisfy the individual needs for health and comfort. In fact, office environmental conditions (e.g., thermal, and indoor air conditions, lighting, and noise) and interior design parameters (e.g., office layout, colors, furniture, access to views, distance to window, personal control and biophilic design) have been found to affect office workers' stress levels. A line of research based on the stress recovery theory offers new insights for establishing offices that limit environmental stress and help with work stress recovery. To that end, this paper answers ten questions that explore the relation between the indoor office-built environment and stress levels among workers. The answers to the ten questions are based on an extensive literature review to draw conclusions from what has been achieved to date. Thus, this study presents a foundation for future environmental stress related research in offices.
Keywords. Stress; Indoor environmental quality; Stress recovery; Office; Interior design
Agner, J., Nakamura, L., Botero, A., Cha, T., & Kaukau, T. M. (2023). Can Photovoice foster the development of social support? American Journal of Community Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12649 Show abstract
Photovoice is a participatory, photo-based research method that differs from conventional (non-participatory) research in that the process is meant to be empowering and beneficial. However, empirical research on the Photovoice process remains very limited. Based on feedback from participants who reported Photovoice helped them develop closer relationships, we examine whether engaging in Photovoice fosters social support. Transcripts from a Photovoice study on wellness in mental health Clubhouses (voluntary, community mental health centers) were retrospectively analyzed for instrumental support, appraisal, informational support, and emotional support. Appraisal was the most common form of social support identified, and was primarily expressed through peer praise for photos and insights. Informational support included advice on managing symptoms, promoting wellness, and navigating challenges. Instrumental support was fostered by learning the tangible skill of digital photography and by supporting fellow members with physical or visual limitations to participate in the process. Emotional support was cultivated through encouragement, identification of shared experiences, and connection through humor. In sum, the findings suggest that Photovoice has the potential to foster social support, which may support relational empowerment.
Angell, A. M., Carreon, E. D., Akrofi, J. N., Franklin, M. D., Taylor, E. E., Miller, J., Crowley, C., & Maher, S. O. (2023). Challenges and facilitators to telehealth occupational therapy for autistic children during COVID-19. OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492221142 Show abstract
Pre-pandemic, telehealth occupational therapy (OT) for autistic children appeared promising, but research was limited. The pandemic provided a unique opportunity to investigate how clinics transitioned to telehealth. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators that influenced delivery of OT services through telehealth for autistic children during the pandemic. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 13 participants (three administrators, six OTs, and four parents of autistic children) at three Los Angeles area clinics over a 7-month period. We used narrative and thematic analysis to identify four themes. We identified (a) Challenges and (b) Facilitators to Conducting Telehealth OT, including practical strategies for successful facilitation, and (c) Negative and (d) Positive Outcomes of Conducting Telehealth OT. As telehealth will likely remain a viable means of OT service delivery in the future, our findings provide insight into ways that it can be improved and sustained.
Agner, J., Meyer, M., Kaukau, T. M., Liu, M., Nakamura, L., Botero, A., & Sentell, T. (2023). Health literacy, social networks, and health outcomes among mental health Clubhouse members in Hawai‘i. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(1), 837. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010837 Show abstract
Health literacy is the ability to obtain and utilize health information to make health-related decisions and to navigate health systems. Although health literacy has traditionally been understood as an individual-level construct, current research is revealing the impact that social networks can have on health literacy. To date, no studies have examined associations between health literacy and social networks among people with serious mental illness (PWSMI), who are at high risk of physical illness and premature mortality. To begin to fill this gap, this study explores associations between health literacy, relationships with health discussion partners, and self-reported health outcomes in a racially diverse sample of Clubhouse members in Hawai‘i. Clubhouses are community mental health centers that promote recovery from mental illness through destigmatization, meaningful activity, and strong social relationships. Health literacy was assessed using two single-item screeners (SILS). In a sample of 163 members, 56.2% reported adequate ability to understand health-related instructions or pamphlets, and 43.3% reported adequate confidence filling out medical forms independently. This is consistent with other health literacy studies with PWSMI in the United States, and indicates lower health literacy within this group than is reported in national averages. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a larger Clubhouse staff social network and completing high school were significantly associated with requiring less help to read materials. Higher age, male gender, and being Native Hawaiian and/or Pacific Islander were associated with less confidence filling out medical forms, while higher self-efficacy was associated with higher confidence filling out medical forms. This study provides preliminary evidence that relationships fostered within Clubhouses are associated with health literacy among PWSMI, and highlights the need for more research to examine how social networks and health literacy interventions can be leveraged in community mental health settings to improve health outcomes within this vulnerable population.
Keywords. health literacy; serious mental illness; clubhouse; mental health clubhouse; social networks; distributed health literacy; community mental health
Blanche, E. I., Giuffrida, C., Hallway, M., Edwards, B., & Test, L. A. (Eds.) (2022). An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810
Pineda, R., & Smith, J. R. (2022). The NICU sensory environment. In C. Kenner & J. M. McGrath (Eds.), Developmental care of newborns and infants: A guide for health professionals (3rd ed., pp. 196-212). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. Full text
Magaña, S., Gunter, J. S., & Blanche, E. I. (2022). Community programs — Program 2: Therapy West Integrated Specialized Play Program (TWISPP). In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 261-267). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Nakasuji, B. (2022). Community programs — Program 1: Steppin’ Up transition group program for high school students with developmental disabilities in high-risk areas. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 255-260). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Bodison, S. C., & Surfus, J. (2022). Mealtime participation: Feeding and eating issues in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 210-225). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-15
Surfas, S., & Edwards, B. (2022). Incorporating sensory integration approaches in pediatric mental health. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 182-196). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-13
Kingsley, K. L. (2022). Community programs — Program 3: The Moving to Make Friends© program. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 268-273). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Kingsley, K. L. (2022). LGBTQ and gender expansive children and youth. In L. C. Grajo & A. K. Boisselle (Eds.), Adaptation, coping, and resilience in children and youth: A comprehensive occupational therapy approach (pp. 289-312). Slack Incorporated. Full text
Chen, Y.-J., Sideris, J., Watson, L. R., Crais, E. R., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Early developmental profiles of sensory features and links to school-age adaptive and maladaptive outcomes: A birth cohort investigation. Development and Psychopathology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579422001195 Show abstract
Sensory-based subtypes among autistic children have been well documented, but little is known about longitudinal sensory subtypes beyond autistic populations. This prospective study aimed to identify subtypes based on trajectories of parent-reported sensory features measured at 6–19 months, 3–4, and 6–7 years of age among a community-based birth cohort (N = 1,517), and to examine their associations with school-age clinical and adaptive/maladaptive outcomes on a subset sample (N = 389). Latent class growth analysis revealed five trajectory subtypes varying in intensity and change rates across three sensory domains. In contrast to an Adaptive-All Improving subtype (35%) with very low sensory features and overall better school-age outcomes, an Elevated-All Worsening subtype (3%), comprised of more boys and children of parents with less education, was associated with most elevated autistic traits and poorest adaptive/maladaptive outcomes. Three other subtypes (62% in total) were generally characterized by stable or improving patterns of sensory features at mild to moderate levels, and challenges in certain outcome domains. Our findings indicate that characterizing children based on early sensory trajectories may contribute to earlier detection of subgroups of children with sensory challenges who are more likely to experience developmental challenges by school age, followed by early targeted interventions for improved long-term outcomes.
Keywords. autism, community sample, latent-class trajectory, school-age outcomes, sensory features
Flores Garcia, J., Faye, E., Reid, M. W., Pyatak, E. A., Fox, D. S., Bisno, D. I., Salcedo-Rodriguez, E., Torres Sanchez, A., Hiyari, S., Fogel, J. L., & Raymond, J. K. (2022). Greater telehealth use results in increased visit frequency and lower physician related-distress in adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/19322968221146806 Show abstract
Background. Type one diabetes (T1D) management is challenging for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) due to physiological changes, psychosocial challenges, and increasing independence, resulting in increased diabetes distress and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Alternative care models that engage AYAs and improve diabetes-related health outcomes are needed.
Methods. A 15-month study evaluated an adaptation of the Colorado Young Adults with T1D (CoYoT1) Care model. CoYoT1 Care includes person-centered care, virtual peer groups, and physician training delivered via telehealth. AYAs (aged 16-25 years) were partially randomized to CoYoT1 or standard care, delivered via telehealth or in-person. As the study was ending, the COVID-19 pandemic forced all AYAs to transition to primarily telehealth appointments. This secondary analysis compares changes in clinic attendance, T1D-related distress, HbA1c, and device use between those who attended more than 50% of diabetes clinic visits via telehealth and those who attended more sessions in-person throughout the course of the study.
Results. Out of 68 AYA participants, individuals (n = 39, 57%) who attended most (>50%) study visits by telehealth completed more diabetes care visits (3.3 visits) than those (n = 29, 43%) who primarily attended visits in-person (2.5 visits; P = .007). AYAs who primarily attended visits via telehealth maintained stable physician-related distress, while those who attended more in-person visits reported increases in physician-related distress (P = .04).
Conclusions. Greater usage of telehealth improved AYA engagement with their care, resulting in increased clinic attendance and reduced physician-related diabetes distress. A person-centered care model delivered via telehealth effectively meets the needs of AYAs with T1D.
Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., Aryal, A., Awada, M., Bergés, M., Billington, S., Boric-Lubecke, O., Ghahramani, A., Heydarian, A., Höelscher, C., Jazizadeh, F., Khan, A., Langevin, J., Liu, R., Marks, F., Mauriello, M. L., Murnane, E., Noh, H., Pritoni, M., Roll, S., Schaumann, D., Seyedrezaei, M., Taylor, J. E., Zhao, J., & Zhu, R. (2022). The field of human building interaction for convergent research and innovation for intelligent built environments. Scientific Reports, 12, 22092. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-25047-y Show abstract
Human-Building Interaction (HBI) is a convergent field that represents the growing complexities of the dynamic interplay between human experience and intelligence within built environments. This paper provides core definitions, research dimensions, and an overall vision for the future of HBI as developed through consensus among 25 interdisciplinary experts in a series of facilitated workshops. Three primary areas contribute to and require attention in HBI research: humans (human experiences, performance, and well-being), buildings (building design and operations), and technologies (sensing, inference, and awareness). Three critical interdisciplinary research domains intersect these areas: control systems and decision making, trust and collaboration, and modeling and simulation. Finally, at the core, it is vital for HBI research to center on and support equity, privacy, and sustainability. Compelling research questions are posed for each primary area, research domain, and core principle. State-of-the-art methods used in HBI studies are discussed, and examples of original research are offered to illustrate opportunities for the advancement of HBI research.
Keywords. Civil engineering; Environmental impact; Mechanical engineering; Occupational health; Quality of life
Phillips, M. M., Weldon, R. H., Maniar, A., Patil, U., Kostareva, U., Agner, J., Finn, J., & Sentell, T. (2022). Social networks, health information sharing, and pandemic perceptions among young adults in Hawai’i during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), 16833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416833 Show abstract
Limited information exists about social network variation and health information sharing during COVID-19, especially for Native Hawaiians (NH), Other Pacific Islanders (OPI), and Filipinos, who experienced COVID-19 inequities. Hawai’i residents aged 18–35 completed an online survey regarding social media sources of COVID-19 information and social network health information measured by how many people participants: (1) talked to and (2) listened to about health. Regression models were fit with age, gender, race/ethnicity, chronic disease status, pandemic perceptions, and health literacy as predictors of information sources (logistic) and social network size (Poisson). Respondents were 68% female; 41% NH, OPI, or Filipino; and 73% conducted a recent COVID-19 digital search for themselves or others. Respondents listened to others or discussed their own health with ~2–3 people. Respondents who talked with more people about their health were more likely to have larger networks for listening to others. In regression models, those who perceived greater risk of acquiring COVID-19 discussed their health with more people; in discussing others’ health, women and those with chronic diseases listened to a greater number. Understanding young adults’ social networks and information sources is important for health literacy and designing effective health communications, especially to reach populations experiencing health inequities.
Keywords. social networks; distributed health literacy; health literacy; COVID-19; native Hawaiian; Pacific islander; Filipino
Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., Aryal, A., Awada, M., Bergés, M., Billington, S. L., Boric-Lubecke, O., Ghahramani, A., Heydarian, A., Jazizadeh, F., Liu, R., Zhu, R., Marks, F., Roll, S., Seyedrezaei, M., Taylor, J. E., Höelscher, C., Khan, A., Langevin, J., Mauriello, M. L., Murnane, E., Noh, H., Pritoni, M., Schaumann, D., & Zhao, J. (2022). Ten questions concerning human-building interaction research for improving the quality of life. Building and Environment, 226, 109681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2022.109681 Show abstract
This paper seeks to address ten questions that explore the burgeoning field of Human-Building Interaction (HBI), an interdisciplinary field that represents the next frontier in convergent research and innovation to enable the dynamic interplay of human and building interactional intelligence. The field of HBI builds on several existing efforts in historically separate research fields/communities and aims to understand how buildings affect human outcomes and experiences, as well as how humans interact with, adapt to, and affect the built environment and its systems, to support buildings that can learn, enable adaptation, and evolve at different scales to improve the quality-of-life of its users while optimizing resource usage and service availability. Questions were developed by a diverse group of researchers with backgrounds in design, engineering, computer science, social science, and health science. Answers to these questions draw conclusions from what has been achieved to date as reported in the available literature and establish a foundation for future HBI research. This paper aims to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations in HBI research to change the way people interact with and perceive technology within the context of buildings and inform the design, construction, and operation of next-generation, intelligent built environments. In doing so, HBI research can realize a myriad of benefits for human users, including improved productivity, health, cognition, convenience, and comfort, all of which are essential to societal well-being.
Keywords. Building lifecycle; Human-centered; Occupants; Built environment; Well-being; Interaction; Quality of life
Moon, H. E., Rote, S. M., Sears, J., & Schepens Niemiec, S. L. (2022). Racial differences in the dementia caregiving experience during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 77(12), e203–e215. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbac098 Show abstract
Objectives. Given racial disparities in both dementia and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), non-Hispanic Black (Black) dementia caregivers (CGs) may be at greater risk for care burden during the COVID-19 pandemic than non-Hispanic White (White) CGs. This study investigates the impact of dementia care provision on CGs’ quality of life by race using the 2020 National Health and Aging Trends Study Family Members and Friends COVID-19 data (FF).
Methods. This study features a secondary analysis of FF data (2020–2021), including 216 Black and 1,204 White CGs. We used ANOVA to determine differences in caregiving stressors (i.e., changes in providing help with activities of daily living [ADL], instrumental ADL [IADL], and emotional support). Ordinary least square regression was used to investigate the moderating effects of dementia care on the associations of race with perceived well-being, care burden, and self-reported health and to conduct subgroups analyses of Black and White dementia CGs.
Results. Black dementia CGs provided significantly more help with ADL before and during the COVID-19 pandemic than Black nondementia, White dementia, and White nondementia CGs. Dementia care status did not moderate the associations between race and CG outcomes. For Black dementia CGs, changes in objective stressors (assistance with ADL and IADL) were associated with care burden and well-being. For White CGs, the provision of emotional support was associated with care burden and well-being.
Discussion. This study highlights that increased caregiving demands during the pandemic amplified racial differences in CG stress. Findings suggest that outreach to reduce CG stress and burden is critical for Black dementia CGs.
Keywords. Alzheimer’s and other dementias, Care burden, COVID-19 outbreak, Race, Well-being
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Cariño, B., Chatfield, A. J., & Quan, K. (2022). mHealth-supported interventions with potential to address sedentary behavior in older adults: A scoping review. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 30(6), 1085–1100. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2021-0338 Show abstract
Sedentary behavior (SB) is an independent risk for negative health outcomes in older adults. Mobile health (mHealth) technology has potential to address SB in this population. This scoping review aimed to describe, synthesize, and identify gaps in literature on mHealth-supported interventions with potential to reduce sedentariness in older people. Following an iterative search of five major databases, 13 studies were included in the final review. Only three papers described SB-related factors as the primary target of intervention. mHealth-Driven components were frequently paired with nonmobile approaches and aided self-regulation of physical activity as opposed to SB. Most SB-related outcomes were not statistically significant or were inconclusive. This scoping review revealed a paucity of research applying mHealth-supported approaches to directly overcome sedentariness in older people. Protocol studies included in the review provide evidence that efforts to address this research gap continue to be made, but the need for additional high-quality research remains.
Meyer, M. S., Agner, J., Botero, A., & Cha, T. (2022). Mapping community: A scoping review of clubhouse members’ social networks and their impact on recovery in mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/prj0000520 Show abstract
Objective. Social support is an important component of recovery-based interventions for individuals living with severe mental illness (IWSMI). Clubhouses are local community centers that facilitate the development of meaningful relationships among IWSMI through an empowering structure and engagement with the work-ordered day. This review synthesizes research on social networks in Clubhouses to provide insights on the role of supportive relationships in mental illness recovery, including the size and features of social networks of Clubhouse members, methodological trends and gaps, and the associations between social networks and demographic variables, recovery, health, and perceived social support.
Method. Research on social networks within Clubhouses were identified and analyzed following a systematic six-stage scoping review design.
Results. Twelve articles across six studies were included. Results revealed considerable variation in social network interview methods and network size and features. Overall findings suggest that network size is not consistently associated with reported loneliness, social support, recovery, or quality of life. A deep relationship with at least one supportive person, level of perceived affiliation with Clubhouses, or positive comments from network members may be more or equally valuable than a larger network. Some studies found that types of relationships were associated with unique benefits. Stronger peer networks were associated with relationship satisfaction, while increased connections with health care professionals and family were associated with reduced hospitalizations.
Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Future research should diversify research designs, expand the use of social network analysis and visualization, measure additional outcomes including recovery and health, and increase sample diversity.
Hernandez, R., Jin, H., Pyatak, E. A., Roll, S. C., Gonzalez, J. S., & Schneider, S. (2022). Perception of whole day workload as a mediator between activity engagement and stress in workers with type 1 diabetes. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1463922X.2022.2149878 Show abstract
Associations between various forms of activity engagement (e.g. work, leisure) and the experience of stress in workers have been widely documented. The mechanisms underlying these effects, however, are not fully understood. Our goal was to investigate if perceived whole day workload accounted for the relationships between daily frequencies of activities (i.e. work hours and leisure/rest) and daily stress. We analysed data from 56 workers with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who completed approximately two weeks of intensive longitudinal assessments. Daily whole day workload was measured with an adapted version of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). A variety of occupations were reported, including lawyer, housekeeper and teacher. In multilevel path analyses, day-to-day changes in whole day workload mediated 67% (p < .001), 61% (p < .001), 38% (p < .001), and 55% (p < .001) of the within-person relationships between stress and work hours, rest frequency, active leisure frequency, and day of week, respectively. Our results provided evidence that whole day workload perception may contribute to the processes linking daily activities with daily stress in workers with T1D. Perceived whole day workload may deserve greater attention as a possible stress intervention target, ones that perhaps ergonomists would be especially suited to address.
Keywords. Workload, stress, rest, work hours, type 1 diabetes
Kilroy, E., Gerbella, M., Cao, L., Molfese, P., Butera, C., Harrison, L., Jayashankar, A., Rizzolatti, G., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Specific tractography differences in autism compared to developmental coordination disorder. Scientific Reports, 12, 19246. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-21538-0 Show abstract
About 85% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience comorbid motor impairments, making it unclear whether white matter abnormalities previously found in ASD are related to social communication deficits, the hallmark of ASD, or instead related to comorbid motor impairment. Here we aim to understand specific white matter signatures of ASD beyond those related to comorbid motor impairment by comparing youth (aged 8–18) with ASD (n = 22), developmental coordination disorder (DCD; n = 16), and typically developing youth (TD; n = 22). Diffusion weighted imaging was collected and quantitative anisotropy, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and axial diffusivity were compared between the three groups and correlated with social and motor measures. Compared to DCD and TD groups, diffusivity differences were found in the ASD group in the mid-cingulum longitudinal and u-fibers, the corpus callosum forceps minor/anterior commissure, and the left middle cerebellar peduncle. Compared to the TD group, the ASD group had diffusivity differences in the right inferior frontal occipital/extreme capsule and genu of the corpus callosum. These diffusion differences correlated with emotional deficits and/or autism severity. By contrast, children with DCD showed unique abnormality in the left cortico-spinal and cortico-pontine tracts.
Trial Registration. All data are available on the National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive: https://nda.nih.gov/edit_collection.html?id=2254.
Taylor, E. (2022). Beyond ‘bad’ behaviors: A call for occupational scientists to rethink autism. Journal of Occupational Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2022.2136231 Show abstract
In this paper, I explore how autistic behaviors are rendered Othered transgressive acts in general research and in the figured world of occupation. I assess how the normalization agenda, which aims to condition autistic people into appearing abled, is associated with endemic disparities. I contend that occupational science has often countered anti-autistic stigma. However, I analyze how the field has perpetuated ableism by replicating normalization ideology and through its silence on the occupational significance of autistic behaviors. To contrast dominant assumptions, I examine autistic ways of being within occupational frameworks. I propose that the field can foster inclusion, rethink its figured worlds, and recognize autistic behaviors to promote social responsiveness. I argue these steps are ethically imperative as evidence on the harms of normalization accumulates.
Keywords. Occupational science; Autism; Intersectionality; Occupational justice; Social justice; Ableism
Shomer, L., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Lifestyle Redesign® intervention for psychological well-being and function in people with fibromyalgia: A retrospective cohort study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(6), 7606205060. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.049243 Show abstract
Importance. Fibromyalgia is a complex chronic pain condition for which effective nonpharmacological treatment interventions are lacking. Objective: To explore the effects of an occupational therapy intervention for fibromyalgia on client-reported outcomes of pain interference, self-efficacy, mood, and function.
Design. Retrospective cohort study using a chart review method.
Setting. Outpatient clinic.
Participants. Twenty-one adults with fibromyalgia (M age = 54 yr).
Intervention. A 10-wk occupational therapy group intervention using a Lifestyle Redesign® (LRD) approach.
Outcomes and Measures. The Brief Pain Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) or the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were administered at the first and last sessions of the program.
Results. Between 2015 and 2018, 37 clients entered the program, and 21 completed it. Changes in group averages exceeded the minimal clinically important difference for the BDI and the FIQ. Eighty-one percent of clients who completed the program had a clinically significant improvement on one or more of the outcome measures.
Conclusions and Relevance. The findings demonstrate the potential benefit of occupational therapy as a complementary approach to pharmacological treatment for people with fibromyalgia. Preliminary evidence suggests that a 10-wk occupational therapy group intervention using an LRD approach may reduce symptoms of depression and decrease the impact on daily function for people with fibromyalgia.
Keywords. fibromyalgia, pain, clients, personal satisfaction, self efficacy, life style, depressive disorders
Bisno, D. I., Reid, M. W., Fogel, J. L., Pyatak, E. A., Majidi, S., & Raymond, J. K. (2022). Virtual group appointments reduce distress and improve care management in young adults with Type 1 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 16(6), 1419-1427. https://doi.org/10.1177/19322968211035768 Show abstract
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of virtual group appointments (VGA) on self-reported health-related outcomes and care activities for young adults (YA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Methods. Fifty-three YA (ages 18-25 years) with T1D participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Colorado Young Adults with T1D (CoYoT1) Clinic intervention, encompassing telehealth (TH) with or without VGA. Both new patients (n = 32) and those who participated in a pilot phase (n = 26) were randomized to CoYoT1 Clinic (TH+VGA; n = 23) or TH-only (n = 35) and followed for 1 year. YA completed the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), Diabetes Strengths and Resilience (D-STAR), Self-Efficacy in Diabetes (SED), Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Adolescence (SMOD-A), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), and EuroQol (EQ-5D) scales at baseline and study end.
Results. YA were 67% female, 84% white, 10% Latinx, and the mean age was 20.4 years old. At study end, participants in CoYoT1 Clinic reported significantly reduced diabetes distress compared to those in TH-only, who reported increased levels [Effect Size (ES) = −0.40, P = .02]. Specifically, CoYoT1 Clinic participants reported relative reductions in Physician (ES = −2.87, P = .02) and Regimen-related distress (ES = −0.35, P = .01). In addition, participants in CoYoT1 Clinic reported improved self-management of T1D-related problem solving (ES = 0.47, P = .051) and communication with care providers (ES = 0.39, P = .07).
Conclusions. Virtual group attendance in CoYoT1 Clinic was associated with significant improvements in diabetes-related distress. Long-term exposure to VGA should be investigated in YA with T1D and other pediatric chronic conditions.
Campi, E., Choi, E., Chen, Y.-J., Holland, C. M., Bristol, S., Sideris, J., Crais, E. R., Watson, L. R., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Sensory reactivity of infants at elevated likelihood of autism and associations with caregiver responsiveness. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-022-05764-z Show abstract
Infants at elevated likelihood of developing autism display differences in sensory reactivity, especially hyporeactivity, as early as 7 months of age, potentially contributing to a developmental cascade of autism symptoms. Caregiver responsiveness, which has been linked to positive social communication outcomes, has not been adequately examined with regard to infant sensory reactivity. This study examined the multiplicative impact of infant sensory hypo- and hyperreactivity on caregiver responsiveness to sensory reactivity and regulation cues in 43 infants at elevated likelihood of autism. Sensory hyperreactivity was found to moderate the association between sensory hyporeactivity and caregiver responsiveness, such that caregivers of infants with moderately high sensory hypo- and hyperreactivity demonstrated higher responsiveness.
Keywords. Early risk signs; Sensory reactivity; Caregiver responsiveness; Community sample
Chen, Y.-J., Harrop, C., Sabatos-DeVito, M., Bulluck, J., Belger, A., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Brief report: Attention patterns to non-social stimuli and associations with sensory features in autistic children. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 98, 102035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2022.102035 Show abstract
Background. Aberrant attention patterns have been commonly reported in autistic children. However, few studies have examined attention to non-social stimuli varying in salience and complexity using eye-tracking technology, as well as their links to clinical sensory features.
Method. Forty-one children [16 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 10 with developmental delay (DD), and 15 neurotypical (NT)] ages 4 to 13 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Children completed a passive-viewing eye-tracking task designed to measure visual attention (e.g., fixation duration and count) to non-social stimuli with sensory qualities involving motion (spinning or non-spinning) and sound. Parents completed a clinical questionnaire about their child’s sensory behaviors. Eye-tracking metrics were compared across stimulus conditions and diagnostic groups, and their associations with parent-report sensory features were examined.
Results. Overall children showed longer fixation durations and fewer fixation counts to more complex stimuli (e.g., moving or spinning objects), but such facilitatory effects of stimulus properties tended to be less evident in DD versus ASD or NT groups. More clinical sensory features, especially hyperresponsiveness, were moderately to highly associated with quicker initial fixations and longer fixation durations across stimulus conditions in ASD, but not in DD and NT groups.
Conclusion. The overall attention and initial orientation to non-social stimuli were comparable across autistic children and their non-autistic peers, with some sensory properties such as dynamic motion producing a facilitatory effect (i.e., fewer fixations of longer durations) on attention. However, sensory differences, particularly hyperresponsiveness, might underlie attention patterns as impacted by stimulus properties specifically in autism.
Pacheco, M., Agner, J. L., Myers, T. K., Franco, J., Barile, J. P., Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, J., & Baldwin, J. A. (2022). Health outcomes and healthcare utilization of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders living with HIV in Hawai‘i: A mixed-methods study. Ethnicity & Health, 27(8), 1841-1858. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2021.1990219 Show abstract
Objectives. Past research shows mixed outcomes in terms of HIV-related disparities among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). This study investigates HIV-related disparities among NHOPI living with HIV in Hawai‘i.
Design. An explanatory sequential design was utilized. The quantitative portion analyzed survey data from a statewide Ryan White Needs Assessment (N = 398) to examine the differences in viral suppression and satisfaction with care between NHOPI and other ethnic groups. Utilizing the behavioral model for vulnerable populations (BMVP), semi-structured interviews (N = 16) were conducted next to explain what factors play a role in satisfaction with care and viral suppression when it comes to NHOPI living with HIV in Hawai‘i.
Results. Among the 398 participants 13% were NHOPI. NHOPI were more likely to have a viral load of ≥10,000 copies/mL compared to those who didn’t identify as NHOPI. However, there were no significant differences for other viral load levels (20–199 or 200–9999), and only 20 participants (5.2%) had a viral load of 10,000 copies/mL or more. No significant ethnic differences were found in satisfaction with medical care. In the qualitative phase, factors from all domains of the BMVP were represented within the four themes identified: (1) Care coordination is essential — with AIDs service organizations taking the lead; (2) HIV care, as well as overall health, is defined by the effectiveness of medication; (3) Initial diagnosis is a critical moment for intervention; and (4) Aspects of culture are intangible.
Conclusion. Among NHOPI in Hawai‘i who are engaged in case management, there appears to be no substantial disparities in either viral load or satisfaction with care compared to other ethnic groups. Despite this, qualitative findings provide insights on how ethnicity and culture may still be playing a role. Addressing all domains of the BMVP is crucial to addressing this.
Keywords. Native Hawaiian; Pacific Islander; HIV; AIDS; healthcare utilization; HIV care continuum; viral suppression; culturally-relevant care; culture and healthcare
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Lee, E., Saunders, R., Wagas, R., & Wu, S. (2022). Technology for activity participation in older people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: expert perspectives and a scoping review. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2022.2116114 Show abstract
Purpose. This two-phased study aimed to collate, summarize and characterize – through the lens of an occupation-based, person-centred framework – ongoing research and practice featuring activity participation-supportive digital health technology (DHT) for direct use by older persons with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (PwMCI/ADRD).
Materials and methods. Phase 1: Using scoping review procedures, PubMed, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched to identify primary research studies. Phase 2: Semi-structured interviews were completed with MCI/ADRD expert stakeholders identified through publicly available biographies and snowball referral. Thematic analysis was used to identify, synthesize and cross-compare emergent themes from both data sources that were subsequently organized into core facets of the Human Activity Assistive Technology (HAAT) model.
Results. The scoping review resulted in 28 studies, which were primarily feasibility work with small sample sizes. Interviewed experts (N = 17) had 4+ years of MCI/ADRD experience, came from a variety of settings, and held myriad roles. Real world and research-based use of DHTs held some commonalities, particularly around support for social participation and instrumental activities of daily engagement. No DHT for sleep or work/volunteerism were noted in either phase. People with milder MCI/ADRD conditions were most often targeted users. Soft technology strategies facilitating implementation centred on product design (e.g., prompting software, customisability, multimedia/multisensory experiences), instructional methods and technology partner involvement.
Conclusions. This study demonstrates that although DHT supportive of activity participation is being studied and integrated into the lives of PwMCI/ADRD, there are still key opportunities for growth to meet the needs of diverse MCI/ADRD end users.
Keywords. Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias; digital health technology; activity participation; scoping review; older adults; activities of daily living; digital divide
Cunningham, R., Uyeshiro Simon, A., & Preissner, K. (2022). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for adults with multiple sclerosis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(5), 7605397010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.050088 Show abstract
Importance. Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in addressing the occupational performance and participation needs of adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their caregivers.
Objective. This Practice Guideline aims to help occupational therapy practitioners, as well as the people who manage, reimburse, or set policy regarding occupational therapy services, understand occupational therapy’s role in providing services to adults with MS and their caregivers. This guideline can also serve as a reference for health care professionals, health care managers, educators, regulators, third-party payers, managed care organizations, and researchers.
Method. We examined, synthesized, and integrated the results of four systematic reviews into clinical recommendations. Three systematic reviews specified occupational domains as outcomes of interest, and one focused on interventions for caregivers of people with MS.
Results. Twenty-one articles from the systematic reviews with strong or moderate strength of evidence served as the basis for the clinical recommendations.
Keywords. adult, multiple sclerosis, occupational therapists, practice guidelines, sleep, systematic reviews, caregivers, clients, health, fatigue
Sentell, T. L., Agner, J. L., Davis, J., Mannem, S., Seto, T. B., Valente, T. W., Vawer, M., & Taira, D. A. (2022). Social networks in patients hospitalized with preventable conditions for heart disease and diabetes in Hawai‘i by health literacy. Chronic Illness, 18(3), 517-531. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395320987892 Show abstract
Objectives. Reducing potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPH) for chronic disease is a research and practice priority. Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have disparities in PPH, and are understudied in both health literacy and social network research. Greater inclusion of social and familial networks can help address health disparities among people with chronic illness and enhance culturally relevant healthcare.
Methods. Adults hospitalized with a heart disease or diabetes-related PHH in Hawai‘i (N = 22) were assessed for health literacy and social network membership (“alters”).
Results. Sixty-nine percent of respondents were NHOPI. Three respondents (14%) had no alters (“isolates”). Among non-isolates, 79% desired the participation of at least one alter in chronic disease management-related interventions. Fifty-nine percent of respondents had low health literacy. While the mean number of alters did not vary significantly by health literacy, those with lower health literacy had a trend (p = .055) towards less interest in social network engagement.
Discussion. In a sample primarily comprised of NHOPI with chronic disease, many patients wished to include social network members in interventions. Engagement varied by health literacy with implications for health disparities. Not all patients were interested in social network engagement, which must be considered in intervention planning.
Keywords. Social networks, ambulatory care sensitive conditions, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, chronic disease, diabetes, heart disease, medications
Evans, K. D., Sommerich, C. M., Bloom, I. W., Roll, S. C., & Stigall-Weikle, A. N. (2022). The value of conducting a longitudinal study on well-being and risk for work-related musculoskeletal injuries in ultrasound users. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 38(5), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1177/87564793221091255 Show abstract
This article discusses the importance of conducting a longitudinal data collection concerning well-being and the risk for work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WRMSI) among sonographers and vascular technologists. There is a need for changes in the manner that sonographic work is done, but this should be nested in empirical evidence. This gives the rational for conducting the study titled Documenting the overall wellness of ultrasound users and the risk of progressive WRMSI: A national longitudinal study. The objective of this longitudinal work is to better understand collective practice patterns and examine the relationship of sonographic work conditions and performance to the user’s health and well-being. This symposium provides the foundational understanding of the strength of this type of study and how it may help to influence behavior and organizational change.
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Wagas, R., Vigen, C. L., Blanchard, J., Barber, S. J., & Schoenhals, A. (2022). Preliminary user evaluation of a physical activity smartphone app for older adults. Health Policy and Technology, 11(3), 100639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2022.100639 Show abstract
Objectives. Mobile health (mHealth) delivered through smartphone apps is a viable means of improving health behaviors. Technologies can be strengthened and made more age-inclusive by involving older adults as co-designers, resulting in more accessible and effective products. This study's purpose is to describe preliminary acceptability and feasibility of a physical activity (PA) app tailored to underactive older people.
Methods. Moving Up is a multi-feature app designed to increase PA and reduce sedentary behaviors in underactive older adults. The suite houses a core activity tracker and three add-on features that target correlates of inactivity: sedentary behavior, stereotypes about aging, and PA knowledge and routines. Three groups of 4–5 older adult smartphone owners were provided with and oriented to the Moving Up app activity tracker and one add-on feature. Participants beta-tested the app for two weeks, after which each cohort reconvened to discuss experiences, make recommendations for app improvements, and complete a usability questionnaire on their assigned feature.
Results. Thirteen participants (median age, 71 years; iOS users, n=8; females, n=12) completed the beta-testing period and returned for follow-up. Reported usability was moderate across the features. Sentiments about app content and general impressions were mainly positive, although users made several recommendations for app improvements such as more individualized messaging and timely notifications.
Conclusions. A PA app for older adults demonstrated generally good usability and acceptability. Integrating the impressions and recommendations from older adults into the design of mHealth tools will enhance overall usability and likelihood to positively influence PA behaviors long-term.
Keywords. Older adults; Mobile app; Physical activity; mHealth; Technology; Feasibility
Pyatak, E. A., Carandang, K., Rice Collins, C., & Carlson, M. (2022). Optimizing occupations, habits, and routines for health and well-being with Lifestyle Redesign®: A synthesis and scoping review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(5), 7605205050. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.049269 Show abstract
Importance. Lifestyle Redesign® originated as a preventive occupational therapy intervention for healthy older adults, and it was found to be both effective and cost effective in the Well Elderly Studies initiated in the 1990s. Building on that empirical foundation, the scope of Lifestyle Redesign has been greatly expanded as a general intervention framework addressing prevention and chronic condition management in a wide range of populations, settings, and conditions. Yet until now, its full scope, defining characteristics, and supporting evidence have not been clearly and succinctly described, limiting its potential reach and impact.
Objective. To outline the definition and key characteristics of Lifestyle Redesign, provide a scoping review of its evidence base and future directions for research, describe its current applications, and make recommendations for its use in clinical practice.
Evidence Review. We searched PubMed and CINAHL, tables of contents of 10 occupational therapy journals, and citations in two seminal Lifestyle Redesign publications to identify articles published in 1997–2020 that described quantitative outcomes (for n ≥ 20) of interventions meeting the defining characteristics of Lifestyle Redesign.
Findings. Our scoping review yielded 12 publications providing supportive evidence for Lifestyle Redesign’s positive impact on a range of health and well-being outcomes among both well populations and those with chronic conditions.
Conclusions and Relevance. Lifestyle Redesign has the potential to meet a growing need in clinical and community settings for health care services that address prevention, health promotion, and chronic disease management.
Keywords. clients, health, life style, personal satisfaction
Huot, S., Aldrich, R. M., Laliberte Rudman, D., & Stone, M. (2022). Picturing precarity through occupational mapping: Making the (im)mobilities of long-term unemployment visible. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(4), 529-544. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1821244 Show abstract
The 2008 recession had long-lasting economic effects that made everyday experiences of precarity more prevalent in many countries. Within a broader neoliberal context, however, the prevalence of precarity and its social production tends to be obscured, leading to a need for actions aimed at enhancing social awareness and informing social change. In this article, we illustrate how the precarity associated with long-term unemployment, which persisted at historically high levels through 2018, can be made visible by analyzing the mobilities of occupational engagement. Our illustrations derive from a larger four-phase collaborative ethnography conducted in the United States and Canada between 2014 and 2018. Informed by a critical occupational science perspective, the study utilized multiple methods to generate data with participants who self-identified as being long-term unemployed. One of those methods, occupational mapping, explored how participants negotiated daily routines and occupations at the local scale during their unemployment. Analysis of four exemplar cases, as informed by the mobilities paradigm, illuminates the lived impacts and geospatial effects of precarity on everyday occupations in situations of long-term unemployment. Findings contribute to the wider examination of how precarity is spatially experienced within the situation of long-term unemployment as reflected in people’s (im)mobilities and occupational engagement.
Keywords. Occupational science; Activation; Ethnography; Mobilities; Occupational mapping; Long-term unemployment; Precarity
Frank, G. (2022). Occupational science’s stalled revolution and a manifesto for reconstruction. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(4), 455-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2022.2110658 Show abstract
This publication develops a keynote presented at the 27th USC Chan Occupational Science Symposium, “Occupations disrupted: Pandemics and the reshaping of everyday life,” on November 5, 2021. I used the social theory of occupational reconstructions — shared problem-solving through narrative alignments and collective action — to reflect on occupational science’s progress since its founding 30 years ago. I argue that (1) the science of occupation has stalled in today’s neoliberal university; and that (2) ‘consequential questions’ must be formulated across the discipline to develop useful knowledge from different locations, positionalities, and contexts. A ‘consequential question,’ I propose, produces knowledge useful to solving problems of wide concern to the discipline, other disciplines, and the public; and sets up a scientific research program that progresses empirically and theoretically. I explain why the founders’ pragmatist framing of occupation as mind-body experience remains important to recent critiques of the discipline and its future advancement. Likewise, I explain how pragmatism can and must transact with various critical (Marxist, poststructuralist) philosophies and other (positivist, alternative) epistemologies regarding societal problems such as occupational justice, human rights, decolonization, political polarization, and the erosion of democracy. I suggest that federally funded biomedical research in the neoliberal university is not currently designed to advance a science of occupation, although it could if occupational scientists were to face the discipline’s contradictions under neoliberalism and reconstruct its common purpose.
Keywords. Occupational science; Pragmatism; Critical social theory; Racial justice
Kilroy, E., Ring, P., Hossain, A., Nalbach, A., Butera, C., Harrison, L., Jayashankar, A., Vigen, C., Aziz-Zadeh, L., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Motor performance, praxis, and social skills in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder. Autism Research, 15(9), 1649-1664. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2774 Show abstract
Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have overlapping social and motor skill impairments. This study compares ASD, DCD, and typically developing (TD) youth on a range of social, praxis and motor skills, and investigates the relationship between these skills in each group. Data were collected on participants aged 8–17 (n = 33 ASD, n = 28 DCD, n = 35 TD). Overall, the clinical groups showed some similar patterns of social and motor impairments but diverged in praxis impairments, cognitive empathy, and Theory of Mind ability. When controlling for both social and motor performance impairments, the ASD group showed significantly lower accuracy on imitation of meaningful gestures and gesture to command, indicating a prominent deficit in these praxis skills in ASD.
Ringold, S. M., McGuire, R. W., Jayashankar, A., Kilroy, E., Butera, C. D., Harrison, L., Cermak, S. A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Sensory modulation in children with developmental coordination disorder compared to autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. Brain Sciences, 12(9), 1171. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091171 Show abstract
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is one of the least studied and understood developmental disorders. One area that has been minimally investigated in DCD is potential issues with sensory modulation. Further, in other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) sensory modulation is related to many other challenges (e.g., social issues, repetitive behaviors, anxiety); however, such potential relationships in children with DCD have been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to explore sensory modulation differences in DCD and to understand the relationships between sensory modulation and social emotional measures, behavior, and motor skills in DCD in comparison to ASD and typically developing (TD) peers. Participants (aged 8–17) and their caregivers (DCD, N = 26; ASD, N = 57; and TD, N = 53) completed behavioral and clinical measures. The results indicated that 31% of the DCD group showed sensory modulation difficulties, with the DCD group falling between the ASD and TD groups. In the DCD group, sensory modulation was significantly associated with anxiety, empathic concern, repetitive behaviors, and motor skills. Data are compared to patterns seen in ASD and TD groups and implications for interventions are discussed.
Keywords. developmental coordination disorder; sensory processing; autism spectrum disorder; behavior; social emotional; motor skills; dyspraxia; empathy; sensory modulation; anxiety
Awada, M., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. (2022). Cognitive performance, creativity and stress levels of neurotypical young adults under different white noise levels. Scientific Reports, 12, 14566. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-18862-w Show abstract
Noise is often considered a distractor; however recent studies suggest that sub-attentive individuals or individuals diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can benefit from white noise to enhance their cognitive performance. Research regarding the effect of white noise on neurotypical adults presents mixed results, thus the implications of white noise on the neurotypical population remain unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of 2 white noise conditions, white noise level at 45 dB and white noise level at 65 dB, on the cognitive performance, creativity, and stress levels of neurotypical young adults in a private office space. These conditions are compared to a baseline condition where participants are exposed to the office ambient noise. Our findings showed that the white noise level at 45 dB resulted in better cognitive performance in terms of sustained attention, accuracy, and speed of performance as well as enhanced creativity and lower stress levels. On the other hand, the 65 dB white noise condition led to improved working memory but higher stress levels, which leads to the conclusion that different tasks might require different noise levels for optimal performance. These results lay the foundation for the integration of white noise into office workspaces as a tool to enhance office workers’ performance.
Williams, M. E., Stein Duker, L. I., Vigen, C. L., Wylde, C., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Brief Report: Caregiver confidence in reporting anxiety symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52(8), 3727–3733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05210-6 Show abstract
Assessment of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) most commonly includes parent questionnaires. However, due to the nature of the questions and verbal limitations often present in children with ASD, caregivers may have difficulty completing such measures. Caregivers of 144 children with ASD ages 6 to 12 completed the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4 ASD Anxiety Scale and rated their level of confidence in responding to each item. Results indicated that parents had a moderate to high level of confidence in rating their children’s anxiety symptoms. Parent confidence was not influenced by their child’s age, expressive language ability, or intellectual functioning, but was related to their child’s anxiety symptom count and ASD severity.
Hayward, K., Ferris, J. K., Lohse, K. R., Borich, M. R., Borstad, A., Cassidy, J. M., Cramer, S. C., Dukelow, S. P., Findlater, S. E., Hawe, R. L., Liew, S.-L., Neva, J. L., Stewart, J. C., & Boyd, L. A. (2022). Observational study of neuroimaging biomarkers of severe upper limb impairment after stroke. Neurology, 99(4), e402-e413. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200517 Show abstract
Background and objectives. It is difficult to predict post-stroke outcome for people with severe motor impairment, as both clinical tests and corticospinal tract (CST) microstructure may not reliably indicate severe motor impairment. Here, we test whether imaging biomarkers beyond the CST relate to severe upper limb impairment post-stroke by evaluating white matter microstructure in the corpus callosum (CC). In an international, multisite hypothesis-generating observational study we determined if: a) CST asymmetry index can differentiate between individuals with mild-moderate and severe upper limb impairment; and b) CC biomarkers relate to upper limb impairment within individuals with severe impairment post-stroke. We hypothesised that CST asymmetry index would differentiate between mild-moderate and severe impairment, but CC microstructure would relate to motor outcome for individuals with severe upper limb impairment.
Methods. Seven cohorts with individual diffusion imaging and motor impairment (Fugl Meyer-Upper Limb) data were pooled. Hand-drawn regions-of-interest were used to seed probabilistic tractography for CST (ipsilesional/contralesional) and CC (prefrontal/premotor/motor/sensory/posterior) tracts. Our main imaging measure was mean fractional anisotropy. Linear mixed-effect regression explored relationships between candidate biomarkers and motor impairment, controlling for observations nested within cohorts, as well as age, sex, time post-stroke and lesion volume.
Results. Data from 110 individuals (30 mild-moderate, 80 with severe motor impairment) were included. In the full sample, greater CST asymmetry index (i.e., lower fractional anisotropy in the ipsilesional hemisphere, p<.001) and larger lesion volume (p=.139) were negatively related to impairment. In the severe subgroup, CST asymmetry index was not reliably associated with impairment across models. Instead, lesion volume and CC microstructure explained impairment in the severe group beyond CST asymmetry index (p’s<.010).
Conclusions. Within a large cohort of individuals with severe upper limb impairment, CC microstructure related to motor outcome post-stroke. Our findings demonstrate that CST microstructure does relate to upper limb outcome across the full range of motor impairment but was not reliably associated within the severe subgroup. Therefore, CC microstructure may provide a promising biomarker for severe upper limb outcome post-stroke, which may advance our ability to predict recovery in people with severe motor impairment after stroke.
Roll, S. C., & Yo, S. H. (2022). (Re-)Defining ergonomics in hand therapy: Applications for the management of upper extremity osteoarthritis. Journal of Hand Therapy, 35(3), 400-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2022.06.006 Show abstract
Background. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in adults, and research shows that people living with arthritis experience work instability, loss of independence, financial difficulties, and overall decreased quality of life. Current nonpharmacological treatments can be beneficial for short term relief; however, the evidence on these long-term treatments is limited. Ergonomic modifications have been used in the workplace to address musculoskeletal conditions to ensure proper fit of one's environment, and research shows that these modifications can decrease pain and injury and increase work productivity. A broader perspective on ergonomic approaches may be important to supporting individuals with arthritis within hand therapy.
Purpose of the Study. This review proposes an expanded perspective on ergonomic approaches within hand therapy and explores published literature to identify potential benefits of applying ergonomic approaches for individuals with upper extremity arthritis.
Methods. A systematic search and screening process was conducted to identify articles that implemented an ergonomic approach for the support of individuals with upper extremity osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.
Results. A total of 34 articles described interventions that employed ergonomics including task-based or general ergonomics (n = 17), contextualized supports (n = 8), or holistic, lifestyle approaches (n = 9). Only one study focused solely on individuals with osteoarthritis, whereas interventions for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis showed positive outcomes across these categories. Situational learning, building of patient self-efficacy, and development of new habits and routines are vital for carryover and implementation to support performance in daily life.
Conclusion. There is an opportunity for hand therapists to extend the scope of interventions provided as part of an ergonomic approach to supporting patients. Specifically, therapists can consider use of emerging technologies and telehealth that promote contextualization and follow-up for long-term outcomes.
Keywords. Ergonomics, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis
Butera, C. D., Harrison, L., Jayashankar, A., Shipkova, M., Pruyser, A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Relationships between alexithymia, interoception, and emotional empathy in autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/13623613221111310 Show abstract
Some studies suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder have reduced emotional empathy while others do not. The presence of co-occurring alexithymia in autism spectrum disorder and differences in interoception have been associated with reductions in empathic ability. To fully explore the relationships between interoception, alexithymia, and emotional empathy, we collected self-report and interview data in 35 youth with autism spectrum disorder and 40 typically developing controls (ages 8–17 years). The autism spectrum disorder sample had increased alexithymia and physiological hyperarousal compared to typically developing controls, but there were no group differences in interoception or emotional empathy. Alexithymia severity correlated with higher personal distress in both groups and with lower empathic concern in the autism spectrum disorder group. Within the autism spectrum disorder group, higher incidence of reports of bodily sensation when describing emotional experience correlated with lower personal distress and lower alexithymia. In addition, although empathic concern was negatively correlated with alexithymia in the autism spectrum disorder group, across groups, the alexithymia hypothesis was supported in only the personal distress domain of emotional empathy. These results suggest emotional empathy; personal distress, in particular, is not intrinsically impaired in autism spectrum disorder.
Holguin, J. A., Margetis, J. L., Narayan, A., Yoneoka, G. M., & Irimia, A. (2022). Vascular cognitive impairment after mild stroke: Connectomic insights, neuroimaging, and knowledge translation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 905979. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.905979 Show abstract
Contemporary stroke assessment protocols have a limited ability to detect vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), especially among those with subtle deficits. This lesser-involved categorization, termed mild stroke (MiS), can manifest compromised processing speed that negatively impacts cognition. From a neurorehabilitation perspective, research spanning neuroimaging, neuroinformatics, and cognitive neuroscience supports that processing speed is a valuable proxy for complex neurocognitive operations, insofar as inefficient neural network computation significantly affects daily task performance. This impact is particularly evident when high cognitive loads compromise network efficiency by challenging task speed, complexity, and duration. Screening for VCI using processing speed metrics can be more sensitive and specific. Further, they can inform rehabilitation approaches that enhance patient recovery, clarify the construct of MiS, support clinician-researcher symbiosis, and further clarify the occupational therapy role in targeting functional cognition. To this end, we review relationships between insult-derived connectome alterations and VCI, and discuss novel clinical approaches for identifying disruptions of neural networks and white matter connectivity. Furthermore, we will frame knowledge translation efforts to leverage insights from cutting-edge structural and functional connectomics research. Lastly, we highlight how occupational therapists can provide expertise as knowledge brokers acting within their established scope of practice to drive substantive clinical innovation.
Richter, M., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Health care professional perceptions about a proposed NICU intervention: The importance of community and aligning with everyday occupations. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 42(3), 238-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492221082051 Show abstract
The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a dynamic system with multiple stakeholders and contextual factors impacting the implementation of novel practices. This qualitative study aimed to (a) define health care professionals’ perceptions on the feasibility of implementing a sensory intervention to study its efficacy, and (b) elaborate on transactions occurring between NICU health care professionals and the proposed research. Eleven NICU professionals participated in one of three focus groups that were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically in NVivo first descriptively and then interpretively through a transactionalism lens. The health care professionals implied the intervention was feasible, but provided multiple suggestions to enhance implementation. The modification of familiar occupational practices, ingrained habits, and the potential impact on the collective occupational performance of NICU community members arose. Understanding occupations within the NICU as transactional allows for a broader view of occupational engagement and enhances knowledge of the nuances related to implementing clinical changes.
Keywords. qualitative research, neonate, occupational engagement, occupational science, occupational performance
Richter, M., Fehringer, K., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Parent-infant interaction in the NICU: Challenges in measurement. Early Human Development, 170, 105609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2022.105609 Show abstract
Background. Parent-infant interaction is poorly understood among high-risk dyads in NICU settings. No parent-infant interaction measures are specifically designed for preterm infants within the NICU nor account for the education NICU parents receive to tailor their interactions based on the infant's cues.
Aim. To improve our understanding of a measure of parent-infant interaction in the NICU, we investigated relationships between parent-infant interaction scores on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and 1) socio-demographic and medical factors, 2) parent mental health and confidence, and 3) enhanced parental education (delivered as part of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences program) on tailoring interactions based on the infant's cues.
Method. Twenty-six preterm infants (born ≤32 weeks) had a video recorded oral feeding conducted by a parent in the NICU when the infant was 34–48 weeks postmenstrual age. A certified evaluator scored parent-infant interaction from the videos using the NCAFS.
Results. Seventeen (65 %) parent-infant dyads scored below the 10th percentile on the total NCAFS score. Despite it being well-understood that parent-infant interaction is related to sociodemographic factors and parental mental health, there were no relationships between these factors and NCAFS scores in this study. Dyads who received enhanced parent education (n = 15) had lower NCAFS scores than dyads receiving usual care (n = 11) (p = 0.01).
Conclusion. It remains unclear if the standard measure of parent-infant interaction, NCAFS, captured positive and negative interactions in context of assessment of a high-risk dyad within the NICU setting. The utility of the NCAFS with preterm infants in the NICU was not supported by this study.
Keywords. Premature infant; Human development; Parents; Interactions
Donnelly, M. R., Fukumura, Y. E., & Richter, M. (2022). Untapped sources of contextualized knowledge: Exploring occupational disruption during COVID-19 as showcased through YouTube parodies. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(3), 417-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2021.1991841 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic led to stay-at-home mandates and lockdowns around the globe. During this time of occupational disruption and social distancing measures, many engaged through online environments. Social media are ever-increasing hosts of occupation and participation, rich with research opportunities. In this study, we explored COVID-19 experiences by analyzing parody videos posted on YouTube by various content creators. We analyzed the lyrics of 27 viral videos (accrued 1 million or more views) by 20 content creators. Using a transactional framework, we identified five themes related to occupational disruption in the lyrics and explored the polarity of the concepts within each theme: old norms vs. new normal, time expanded vs. time condensed, control seeking vs. lack of control, social isolation vs. excess socialization, and cynicism vs. hope. Our findings demonstrated the complex transactions between previous habits and routines, changing spaces of occupation, and meaning of daily occupations within evolving social, economic, and physical contexts. While this study showcased YouTube videos as one untapped source of contextualized knowledge for occupational science, there is a need for further exploration of methodological and ethical challenges of studying digital content.
Hernandez, R., Roll, S. C., Jin, H., Schneider, S., & Pyatak, E. A. (2022). Validation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) adapted for the whole day repeated measures context. Ergonomics, 65(7), 960-975. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.2006317 Show abstract
Our objective was to investigate the validity of four-item and six-item versions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX, or TLX for short) for measuring workload over a whole day in the repeated measures context. We analyzed data on 51 people with type 1 diabetes from whom we collected ecological momentary assessment and daily diary data over 14 days. The TLX was administered at the last survey of every day. Confirmatory factor analysis fit statistics indicated that neither the TLX-6 nor TLX-4 were a unidimensional representation of whole day workload. In exploratory analyses, another set of TLX items we refer to as TLX-4v2 was sufficiently unidimensional. Raw sum scores from the TLX-6 and TLX-4v2 had plausible relationships with other measures, as evidenced by intra-person correlations and mixed-effects models. TLX-6 appears to capture multiple factors contributing to workload, while TLX-4v2 assesses the single factor of “mental strain.”
Stein Duker, L. I., Martinez, M., Lane, C. J., Polido, J. C., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Association between oral care challenges and sensory over-responsivity in children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 32(4), 546-557. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12933 Show abstract
Background. Sensory over-responsivity has been linked to oral care challenges in children with special healthcare needs. Parents of children with Down syndrome (cDS) have reported sensory over-responsivity in their children, but the link between this and oral care difficulties has not been explored.
Aim. Investigate relationship between sensory over-responsivity and oral care challenges in cDS.
Design. Online survey examined parent-report responses describing their cDS’s oral care (5-14yrs; n=367); children were categorized as sensory over-responders (SORs) or sensory not over-responders (SNORs). Chi-square analyses tested associations between groups (SORs vs. SNORs) and dichotomous oral care variables.
Results. More parents of SOR children, compared to SNOR, reported that: child behavior (SOR:86%, SNOR:77%; p<.05) and sensory sensitivities (SOR:34%, SNOR:18%; p<.001) make dental care challenging, their child complains about ≥3 types of sensory stimuli encountered during care (SOR:39%, SNOR:28%; p=.04), their dentist is specialized in treating children with special needs (SOR:45%, SNOR:33%; p=.03), and their child requires full assistance to brush teeth (SOR:41%, SNOR:28%; p=.008). No group differences were found in items examining parent-reported oral health or care access.
Conclusions. Parents of SOR children report greater challenges than parents of SNOR children at the dentist and in the home, including challenging behaviors and sensory sensitivities.
Aldrich, R. M., Bream, S., & McLaughlin Gray, J. (2022). Course creation as a response to intersecting pandemics: Enhancing students’ abilities to leverage and mobilize an occupational perspective. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(3), 441-450. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2022.2061038 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, as did calls to bring an occupational perspective to an evolving situation. However, the role of occupation-focused education in facilitating responses to the global crisis was missing from this dialogue. This paper aims to address that gap by describing the development of a new course delivered at the University of Southern California in 2020 and 2021. Grounded in occupational science, this special topics course aimed to meet various teaching and learning needs for the post-professional occupational therapy doctorate program. This paper describes how the focus, format, and content of the course developed through a backward design approach to address topics related to the COVID-19 pandemic and intersecting, ongoing crises of structural racism and health and social inequalities. The primary course assignment, a knowledge mobilization product, provided students novel opportunities to leverage their occupational perspectives in response to emergent issues. The paper concludes by addressing three interrelated topics: the importance of institutional mechanisms that facilitate responsive educational innovations; the need to track the teaching and learning impacts of such innovations; and how such innovations reflect the importance of occupational science education.
Keywords. Occupational science; Backward design; Knowledge mobilization; Professional education; Occupational therapy
Chen, Y.-J., Sideris, J., Watson, L. R., Crais, E. R., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Developmental trajectories of sensory patterns from infancy to school age in a community sample and associations with autistic traits. Child Development, 93(4), e446-e459. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13745 Show abstract
This prospective study examined the latent growth trajectories of sensory patterns among a North Carolina birth cohort (N = 1517; 49% boys, 87% White) across infancy (6–19 months), preschool (3–4 years), and school years (6–7 years). Change rates of sensory hyper- and hyporesponsiveness better differentiated children with an autism diagnosis or elevated autistic traits from those with other developmental conditions, including non-autistic children with sensory differences. More sensory hyper- and hyporesponsiveness at infancy followed by steeper increases differentially predicted more autistic traits at school age. Further, children of parents with higher education tended to show stable or improving trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of tracking sensory patterns from infancy for facilitating early identification of associated challenges and tailored support for families.
Lisle, J., Buma, K., Smith, J., Richter, M., Satpute, P., & Pineda, R. (2022). Maternal perceptions about sensory interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit: An exploratory qualitative study. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 10, 884329. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.884329 Show abstract
Background. Mothers play an important role in providing positive sensory experiences to their infants during NICU hospitalization. However, little is known regarding maternal perceptions about sensory-based interventions in the NICU. Further, understanding maternal perceptions was an important part of the process during development of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program.
Methods. Twenty mothers of very preterm infants were interviewed after NICU discharge and asked open-ended questions about sensory-based interventions they performed in the NICU and probed about their perceptions related to the development of a sensory-based guideline and the use of volunteers to provide sensory-based interventions when unable to be present in the NICU. Interviews were transcribed and uploaded into NVivoV.12 for content analysis.
Results. Mothers reported that kangaroo care was a common sensory intervention they performed in the NICU. Of the 18 mothers who commented on the development of a sensory-based guideline, 17 (94%) said they would be accepting of one. Among 19 mothers, 18 (95%) supported volunteers conducting sensory-based interventions in their absence. Identified themes included: 1) Perceptions about development of a sensory-based guideline, 2) Perceptions of interactions with healthcare providers, 3) Maternal participation in sensory interventions, 4) Maternal experience, and 5) Emotions from mothers.
Conclusion. Maternal perceptions regarding the development of a sensory-based guideline were favorable, and the SENSE program has since been finalized after incorporating important insights learned from stakeholders in this study. Mothers' perceptions were tied to their NICU experiences, which elicited strong emotions. These findings highlight important considerations when developing family-centered interventions.
Keywords. development, sensory, therapy, NICU (neonatal intensive care unit), qualitative study
Angell, A. M., Varma, D. S., Deavenport-Saman, A., Yin, L., Solomon, O., Bai, C., & Zou, B. (2022). Effects of sex, race, and ethnicity on primary and subspecialty healthcare use by autistic children in Florida: A longitudinal retrospective cohort study (2012–2018). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 94, 101951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2022.101951 Show abstract
Background. Autistic children and youth have high rates of co-occurring conditions,but little is known about how autism subgroups (girls, non-White children) access healthcare to treat them. The purpose of this longitudinal retrospective cohort study was to investigate differences by sex, race, and ethnicity in non-acute (primary and subspecialty) healthcare use by autistic children and youth.
Method. We used the OneFlorida Data Trust to measure healthcare use for 82,566 autistic children ages 1–21 (2012–2018). We investigated (1) the odds of using any healthcare and (2) annual healthcare usage rates. We adopted a logistic regression and multiple linear regression for each of the dependent variables (total non-acute, primary care, gastroenterology (GI), developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP), psychiatry/psychology, neurology, and total subspecialty visits), adjusting for potential confounders (sex, race, ethnicity, age at visit, insurance type, urbanicity, and co-occurring conditions).
Results. Autistic boys had significantly higher odds of any neurology and psychiatry/psychology visits, but lower annual rates of primary care, GI, and neurology visits. Black/African American autistic children had significantly higher odds of any primary care, DBP, and neurology visits, but lower odds of any GI visits, and lower annual rates of primary care, GI, DBP, and neurology visits. Hispanic/Latinx autistic children had significantly higher odds of any primary care, DBP, and neurology visits, but lower odds of psychiatry/psychology visits; and higher annual rates of neurology visits, but lower annual rates of GI, DBP, and psychiatry/psychology visits.
Conclusions. We found significant differences by sex, race, and ethnicity in non-acute healthcare use by autistic children.
Keywords. Autism spectrum disorders; Sex/gender; Healthcare utilization
Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Lo, B., Donnelly, M. R., Schweighofer, N., Lohse, K., Jahanshad, N., Barisano, G., Banaj, N., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Conforto, A. B., DiCarlo, J. A., Dula, A. N., Egorova-Brumley, N., Etherton, M. R., Feng, W., Fercho, K. A., Geranmayeh, F., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K. S., Hordacre, B., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lin, D. J., Liu, J., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Piras, F., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P. S., Robertson, A. D., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Stinear, C. M., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Taga, M., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Werden, E., Winstein, C., Wittenberg, G. F., Wolf, S. L., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Brodtmann, A., Cramer, S. C., Thompson, P. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2022). Chronic stroke sensorimotor impairment is related to smaller hippocampal volumes: An ENIGMA analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(10), e025109. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025109 Show abstract
Background. Persistent sensorimotor impairments after stroke can negatively impact quality of life. The hippocampus is vulnerable to poststroke secondary degeneration and is involved in sensorimotor behavior but has not been widely studied within the context of poststroke upper-limb sensorimotor impairment. We investigated associations between non-lesioned hippocampal volume and upper limb sensorimotor impairment in people with chronic stroke, hypothesizing that smaller ipsilesional hippocampal volumes would be associated with greater sensorimotor impairment.
Methods and Results. Cross-sectional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain were pooled from 357 participants with chronic stroke from 18 research cohorts of the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuoImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Stroke Recovery Working Group. Sensorimotor impairment was estimated from the FMA-UE (Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity). Robust mixed-effects linear models were used to test associations between poststroke sensorimotor impairment and hippocampal volumes (ipsilesional and contralesional separately; Bonferroni-corrected, P<0.025), controlling for age, sex, lesion volume, and lesioned hemisphere. In exploratory analyses, we tested for a sensorimotor impairment and sex interaction and relationships between lesion volume, sensorimotor damage, and hippocampal volume. Greater sensorimotor impairment was significantly associated with ipsilesional (P=0.005; β=0.16) but not contralesional (P=0.96; β=0.003) hippocampal volume, independent of lesion volume and other covariates (P=0.001; β=0.26). Women showed progressively worsening sensorimotor impairment with smaller ipsilesional (P=0.008; β=−0.26) and contralesional (P=0.006; β=−0.27) hippocampal volumes compared with men. Hippocampal volume was associated with lesion size (P<0.001; β=−0.21) and extent of sensorimotor damage (P=0.003; β=−0.15).
Conclusions. The present study identifies novel associations between chronic poststroke sensorimotor impairment and ipsilesional hippocampal volume that are not caused by lesion size and may be stronger in women.
Gangireddy, R., Chakraborty, S., Pakenham-Walsh, N., Nagarajan, B., Krishan, P., McGuire, R., Vaghela, G., & Sriharan, A. (2022). Themes surrounding COVID-19 and its infodemic: Qualitative analysis of the COVID-19 discussion on the multidisciplinary Healthcare Information for All health forum. JMIR Infodemiology, 2(1), e30167. https://doi.org/10.2196/30167 Show abstract
Background. Healthcare Information for All (HIFA) is a multidisciplinary global campaign consisting of more than 20,000 members worldwide committed to improving the availability and use of health care information in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). During the COVID-19 pandemic, online HIFA forums saw a tremendous amount of discussion regarding the lack of information about COVID-19, the spread of misinformation, and the pandemic’s impact on different communities.
Objective. This study aims to analyze the themes and perspectives shared in the COVID-19 discussion on English HIFA forums.
Methods. Over a period of 8 months, a qualitative thematic content analysis of the COVID-19 discussion on English HIFA forums was conducted. In total, 865 posts between January 24 and October 31, 2020, from 246 unique study participants were included and analyzed.
Results. In total, 6 major themes were identified: infodemic, health system, digital health literacy, economic consequences, marginalized peoples, and mental health. The geographical distribution of study participants involved in the discussion spanned across 46 different countries in every continent except Antarctica. Study participants’ professions included public health workers, health care providers, and researchers, among others. Study participants’ affiliation included nongovernment organizations (NGOs), commercial organizations, academic institutions, the United Nations (UN), the World Health Organization (WHO), and others.
Conclusions. The themes that emerged from this analysis highlight personal recounts, reflections, suggestions, and evidence around addressing COVID-19 related misinformation and might also help to understand the timeline of information evolution, focus, and needs surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords. infodemic; infodemiology; COVID-19; pandemic; misinformation; health information; theme; public health; qualitative study; global health
Lee, H., Chen, Y.-J., Sideris, J., Watson, L. R., Crais, E. R., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Sensory features of young children from a large community sample: Latent factor structures of the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire (Version 2.1, Short Form). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(3), 7603205140. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.046995 Show abstract
Importance. Although three sensory factors (hyperresponsiveness [HYPO]; hyporesponsiveness [HYPER]; and sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors [SIRS]) have been demonstrated among a wide age range of clinical populations, they have not been well validated in the general population, especially with a large community sample of young children.
Objective. To validate the factor structure of the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire (Version 2.1, Short Form; SEQv2.1) in a community sample and to confirm the factor structure’s existence in this sample.
Design. Caregivers completed the SEQv2.1, a parent-reported questionnaire designed to capture children’s everyday sensory experiences. The latent factors of the SEQv2.1 were examined using confirmatory factor analysis.
Setting. North Carolina.
Participants. Caregivers of 2,195 children age 3 yr were initially recruited through state birth records and were eligible to participate if the child did not have a history of serious medical problems and English was the family’s primary language.
Outcomes and Measures. SEQv2.1.
Results. The SEQv2.1 showed validity in the community sample. Similar to previous research with clinical populations, the three broad patterns of sensory responsiveness were also confirmed in this large community sample of young children, but associations among the factors differed.
Conclusions and Relevance. Validation of the three-sensory-factor structure in the general population suggests that these constructs are similar to those found with samples of participants with autism spectrum disorder and developmental disabilities. This finding underscores the importance of understanding the normative development of sensory features across a wider age range to better delineate qualitative differences underlying sensory features between clinical and general populations.
Keywords. child, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, autism spectrum disorder
Katz Zetler, N., Cermak, S. A., Engel-Yeger, B., Baranek, G., & Gal, E. (2022). Association between sensory features and high-order repetitive and restricted behaviors and interests among children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(3), 7603205010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.048082 Show abstract
Importance. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often referred to occupational therapy practitioners so their sensory features and their repetitive and restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) can be addressed. RRBIs include an insistence on sameness, narrow interests, rigid routines, and rituals. However, there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the association between sensory features—across patterns, modalities, and contexts—and high-order RRBIs among children with ASD who are cognitively able.
Objective. To examine the association between sensory features across sensory patterns, modalities, and contexts and high-order RRBIs in children with ASD.
Design. Correlational clinical study based on parent questionnaire responses.
Setting. General education system in Israel.
Participants. Parents of 39 cognitively able school-age children with ASD (ages 6–10 yr; 34 boys and 5 girls), recruited by means of convenience sampling.
Outcomes. High-order RRBIs were assessed with relevant subscales from the Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised (RBS–R), and sensory features across patterns, modalities, and contexts were examined with the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire, Version 2.1. The study hypotheses were formulated before data were collected.
Results. Significant correlations were observed between the high-order RRBIs of children with ASD and their sensory features across patterns, sensory modalities, and contexts. Fifty-one percent of the total RBS–R scores were predicted by sensory hyperresponsiveness, and an additional 11% were predicted by sensory-seeking behaviors.
Conclusions and Relevance. The hypotheses concerning the association between sensory features and high-order RRBIs were confirmed. The findings enhance occupational therapy practitioners’ understanding of this association and may assist in the planning of more efficient interventions.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder, child
Kinney, A. R., Stephenson, R. O., Cogan, A. M., Forster, J. E., Gerber, H. R., & Brenner, L. A. (2022). Participation mediates the relationship between postconcussive symptoms and suicidal ideation among veterans. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(3), 7603205020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.048561 Show abstract
Importance. Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and associated symptoms are at risk for suicide. Postconcussive symptoms (PCS) may heighten risk for suicidal thoughts by limiting veterans’ participation.
Objective. To investigate whether participation mediates the relationship between PCS and suicidal ideation.
Design. Cross-sectional, exploratory design. Structural equation models were used to investigate whether participation mediated the relationship between PCS and suicidal ideation.
Participants. Veterans with mTBI (N = 145).
Outcomes and Measures. The Ohio State University TBI Identification Method was used to establish mTBI diagnosis. We identified latent variables for PCS and participation using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory and select domains of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form–36, respectively. We used the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation to measure the presence of suicidal ideation.
Results. Participation mediated the relationship between PCS and the presence of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, p = .011). More severe PCS were associated with lesser participation (β = –.86, p < .001); greater participation was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 0.92, p = .007).
Conclusions and Relevance. PCS may heighten risk for suicidal thoughts among veterans by limiting successful participation, a primary target of occupational therapy intervention. Thus, the results suggest that occupational therapy practitioners can play a substantial role in suicide prevention services for veterans with mTBI. Preventive services could mitigate suicide risk among veterans with mTBI by enabling sustained engagement in meaningful and health-promoting activity (e.g., reasons for living) and targeting PCS.
Keywords. post-concussion syndrome, traumatic brain injury, mild, veterans, suicidal behavior
Baranek, G. T., Sideris, J., Chen, Y.-J., Crais, E. R., Turner-Brown, L., & Watson, L. R. (2022). Early measurement of autism risk constructs in the general population: A new factor structure of the First Years Inventory (FYIv3.1) for ages 6–16 months. Autism Research, 15(5), 915-928. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2691 Show abstract
Early detection of autism risk in the community is critical to increasing families' access to early intervention, yet few measures have been developed and tested for the general population of infants <16 months to tap a broader range of autism risk constructs. This study aimed to (a) examine the factor structure of the First Years Inventory, version 3.1 (FYIv3.1), with a sample of 6454 infants 6–16 months, and (b) determine the ability of the resulting factors to discriminate clinical outcome groups at 3 years of age. The FYIv3.1 is a parent-report tool designed to detect early behavioral risk signs that may be associated with a later diagnosis of ASD and related neurodevelopmental conditions. Factor analytic models were used to determine the number of constructs and inter-factor correlations. Findings supported a seven-factor structure: communication, imitation and play (CIP); social attention and affective engagement (SAE); sensory hyperresponsiveness (HYPER); sensory hyporesponsiveness (HYPO); self-regulation in daily routines (SREG); sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS); motor coordination and milestones (MCM). Mean comparisons on these factors demonstrated significant discrimination of the three outcome groups at age 3 years including those classified as having an ASD diagnosis and/or high autism symptoms, those classified as having other developmental disorders/conditions/concerns, and those classified with no known conditions/concerns. These findings support the validity and multidimensionality of early ASD risk constructs, as well as the potential use of the FYIv3.1 for phenotypic subtyping in the general population, and early detection in a broader age range of 6–16 months in future clinical studies.
Benitez, A. D., Park, D., & Bream, S. (2022). International students’ and alumni perspectives on their transition to graduate level occupational therapy education and daily life in the United States. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 6(2), 11. https://doi.org/10.26681/jote.2022.060211 Show abstract
International students who enroll in American occupational therapy academic programs must quickly adapt to the academic demands and everyday life rhythms within the United States. This qualitative study contributes to the body of knowledge of lived experiences of international occupational therapy students, specific to their transition to graduate occupational therapy education and daily life in a new country. Thirteen (13) international occupational therapy graduate students and alumni participated in an individual or joint interview. Three key themes emerged from the findings and include the following: 1) Challenges: Inside and Outside of the Classroom, 2) A Support System: A Home Away from Home, and 3) Giving Back to my Home Country: Improving Occupational Therapy Education, Practice, and Research. This study provides insights into the challenges experienced by international graduate occupational therapy students and alumni, strategies that are beneficial in supporting them as they transition into graduate level education and daily life within the United States, and their motivations for giving back to their home countries.
Pham, L., Sarnicola, R., Villasenor, C., & Vu, T. (2022). Spirituality in occupational therapy practice: Where is our spirituality now? OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 42(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492211068216 Show abstract
Although occupational therapy (OT) practitioners are well suited to address spirituality within client care, evidence suggests many practitioners feel discomfort or lack of knowledge of this subject. Few studies have delved into OTs’ experiences and encapsulated if and how spirituality has been experienced in practice. This study aimed to gain a deeper and more updated insight into this phenomenon. Utilizing a phenomenological approach with interviews, this study explored OT practitioners’ (n = 15) experiences with spirituality in client care. (a) Losing spirit: the inadequacy of only addressing mind and body, (b) spirituality as a vehicle for reaffirming purpose in both client and therapist, and (c) addressing spirituality through functional and measurable treatments. Although the concept of mind, body, and spirit is not new, occupational therapists often do not consistently address these components simultaneously, leading to missed opportunities in client practice.
Keywords. spirituality, occupational therapy, qualitative research
Rodrigues, P. B., Xiao, Y., Fukumura, Y. E., Awada, M., Aryal, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Ergonomic assessment of office worker postures using 3D automated joint angle assessment. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 52, 101596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2022.101596 Show abstract
Sedentary activity and static postures are associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and worker discomfort. Ergonomic evaluation for office workers is commonly performed by experts using tools such as the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), but there is limited evidence suggesting sustained compliance with expert’s recommendations. Assessing postural shifts across a day and identifying poor postures would benefit from automation by means of real-time, continuous feedback. Automated postural assessment methods exist; however, they are usually based on ideal conditions that may restrict users’ postures, clothing, and hair styles, or may require unobstructed views of the participants. Using a Microsoft Kinect camera and open-source computer vision algorithms, we propose an automated ergonomic assessment algorithm to monitor office worker postures, the 3D Automated Joint Angle Assessment, 3D-AJA. The validity of the 3D-AJA was tested by comparing algorithm-calculated joint angles to the angles obtained from manual goniometry and the Kinect Software Development Kit (SDK) for 20 participants in an office space. The results of the assessment show that the 3D-AJA has mean absolute errors ranging from 5.6° ± 5.1° to 8.5° ± 8.1° for shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion relative to joint angle measurements from goniometry. Additionally, the 3D-AJA showed relatively good performance on the classification of RULA score A using a Random Forest model (micro averages F1-score = 0.759, G-mean = 0.811), even at high levels of occlusion on the subjects’ lower limbs. The results of the study provide a basis for the development of a full-body ergonomic assessment for office workers, which can support personalized behavior change and help office workers to adjust their postures, thus reducing their risks of WMSDs.
Keywords. Ergonomic assessment; RULA; Engineering office environments; Depth camera; Computer vision; Machine learning
Hardison, M. E., Unger, J., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Hand therapy patients’ psychosocial symptomology and interests in mindfulness: A cross-sectional study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 89(1), 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/00084174211060120 Show abstract
Background. Psychosocial sequelae are common for individuals with physical injuries to the upper extremity. However, psychosocially oriented interventions are not common in this occupational therapy practice area.
Purpose. This study implemented an online survey of hand therapy patients’ psychological symptoms. Second, it explored patients’ interest in one psychosocially oriented intervention: mindfulness meditation.
Methods. The design was a cross-sectional survey of 120 consecutively recruited hand therapy patients. Survey measures included functioning, psychosocial factors, and trait mindfulness.
Findings. Anxiety was prevalent in this sample, and moderately correlated with trait mindfulness (r = −0.542, p < .001). While most participants (77%) indicated mindfulness meditation would be an acceptable intervention, women were 2.8 times as likely to be interested (p = .044).
Implications. Psychosocially oriented interventions are indicated in hand therapy based on the prevalence of these symptoms. Further examination of using mindfulness meditation in hand therapy is warranted due to patient interest.
Uyeshiro Simon, A., & Cunningham, R. (2022). Interventions for instrumental activities of daily living in adults with multiple sclerosis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(2), 7602390010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.049473 Show abstract
Evidence Connection articles provide examples of how evidence from systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association’s Evidence-Based Practice Project can be directly translated into clinical practice. These articles present a summary of the topic and case studies that demonstrate how the evidence from these reviews can inform clinical decision making. This Evidence Connection article includes findings from a systematic review of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice that improve or maintain performance of or participation in instrumental activities of daily living for people living with multiple sclerosis.
Keywords. adult, health, multiple sclerosis, systematic reviews, treatment goals, cognitive-behavioral therapy
Ekhtiari, H., Ghobadi-Azbari, P., Thielscher, A., Antal, A., Li, L. M., Shereen, A. D., Cabral-Calderin, Y., Keeser, D., Bergmann, T. O., Jamil, A., Violante, I. R., Almeida, J., Meinzer, M., Siebner, H. R., Woods, A. J., Stagg, C. J., Abend, R., Antonenko, D., Auer, T., Bächinger, M., Baeken, C., Barron, H. C., Chase, H. W., Crinion, J., Datta, A., Davis, M. H., Ebrahimi, M., Esmaeilpour, Z., Falcone, B., Fiori, V., Ghodratitoostani, I., Gilam, G., Grabner, R. H., Greenspan, J. D., Groen, G., Hartwigsen, G., Hauser, T. U., Herrmann, C. S., Juan, C.-H., Krekelberg, B., Lefebvre, S., Liew, S.-L., Madsen, K. H., Mahdavifar-Khayati, R., Malmir, N., Marangolo, P., Martin, A. K., Meeker, T. J., Ardabili, H. M., Moisa, M., Momi, D., Mulyana, B., Opitz, A., Orlov, N., Ragert, P., Ruff, C. C., Ruffini, G., Ruttorf, M., Sangchooli, A., Schellhorn, K., Schlaug, G., Sehm, B., Soleimani, G., Tavakoli, H., Thompson, B., Timmann, D., Tsuchiyagaito, A., Ulrich, M., Vosskuhl, J., Weinrich, C. A., Zare-Bidoky, M., Zhang, X., Zoefel, B., Nitsche, M. A., & Bikson, M. (2022). A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of concurrent tES-fMRI studies (ContES checklist): a consensus study and statement. Nature Protocols, 17, 596–617. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-021-00664-5 Show abstract
Low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including alternating or direct current stimulation, applies weak electrical stimulation to modulate the activity of brain circuits. Integration of tES with concurrent functional MRI (fMRI) allows for the mapping of neural activity during neuromodulation, supporting causal studies of both brain function and tES effects. Methodological aspects of tES-fMRI studies underpin the results, and reporting them in appropriate detail is required for reproducibility and interpretability. Despite the growing number of published reports, there are no consensus-based checklists for disclosing methodological details of concurrent tES-fMRI studies. The objective of this work was to develop a consensus-based checklist of reporting standards for concurrent tES-fMRI studies to support methodological rigor, transparency and reproducibility (ContES checklist). A two-phase Delphi consensus process was conducted by a steering committee (SC) of 13 members and 49 expert panelists through the International Network of the tES-fMRI Consortium. The process began with a circulation of a preliminary checklist of essential items and additional recommendations, developed by the SC on the basis of a systematic review of 57 concurrent tES-fMRI studies. Contributors were then invited to suggest revisions or additions to the initial checklist. After the revision phase, contributors rated the importance of the 17 essential items and 42 additional recommendations in the final checklist. The state of methodological transparency within the 57 reviewed concurrent tES-fMRI studies was then assessed by using the checklist. Experts refined the checklist through the revision and rating phases, leading to a checklist with three categories of essential items and additional recommendations: (i) technological factors, (ii) safety and noise tests and (iii) methodological factors. The level of reporting of checklist items varied among the 57 concurrent tES-fMRI papers, ranging from 24% to 76%. On average, 53% of checklist items were reported in a given article. In conclusion, use of the ContES checklist is expected to enhance the methodological reporting quality of future concurrent tES-fMRI studies and increase methodological transparency and reproducibility.
Borelli, E., Butera, C., Katirai, A., Adams, T. C., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Impact of motor stroke on novel and conventional action metaphor comprehension. Brain and Language, 226, 105081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2022.105081 Show abstract
Previous studies indicate that damage to motor brain regions impacts comprehension of literal action-related language. However, whether such damage also impacts comprehension of action-metaphors remains unknown. Such a finding would support the notion that metaphors are grounded in sensorimotor representations. Here we tested this hypothesis by comparing comprehension of novel, conventional, and frozen action and non-action metaphors in 14 right-handed adults with right-sided mild to moderate paresis following left hemisphere motor stroke and 23 neurotypical participants. Consistent with our hypothesis, results indicated that only in the stroke group, accuracy for action metaphors was significantly lower than for non-action metaphors. Further, in the stroke group, accuracy was significantly worse in the following pattern: novel < conventional < frozen action metaphors. These results strongly support the notion that motor-related brain regions are important not only for literal action-related language comprehension, but also for action-related metaphor comprehension, especially for less familiar metaphors.
Keywords. Embodied semantics theory; Motor stroke; Motor metaphor; Abstract language; Graded Salience Hypothesis
Cunningham, R., & Uyeshiro Simon, A. (2022). Interventions for instrumental activities of daily living among adults with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(2), 7602205130. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.049092 Show abstract
Importance. Occupational therapy practitioners need updated information about interventions that may improve or maintain functional changes in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) engagement caused by multiple sclerosis (MS).
Objective. To conduct a narrative synthesis of updated evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve or maintain performance of and participation in IADLs among adults with MS.
Data Sources. CINAHL, MEDLINE in PubMed, Cochrane, OTseeker, and PsycINFO.
Study Selection and Data Collection. This systematic review followed the Cochrane Collaboration methodology and is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for conducting a systematic review. Inclusion criteria were Level 1 or 2 evidence, published in English, published from January 2011 to December 2018, intervention within the occupational therapy scope of practice, and at least one IADL outcome measure.
Findings. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (including pilot and feasibility trials) and 1 preintervention–postintervention study met inclusion criteria. Results of this review show strong strength of evidence for coaching interventions in addressing physical activity (PA) routines and moderate support in addressing medication routines. Moderate strength of evidence was found with mixed results for interventions involving coaching plus prescribed PA in improving PA participation.
Conclusions and Relevance. This systematic review supports occupational therapy practitioners addressing PA and medication health management and maintenance IADLs through the use of coaching interventions when treating people with MS. Other IADLs were addressed by the articles in this review but require more evidence to make clinical recommendations.
Keywords. adult, health, multiple sclerosis, systematic reviews, occupational therapists
Stein Duker, L. I., Grager, M., Giffin, W., Hikita, N., & Polido, J. C. (2022). The relationship between dental fear and anxiety, general anxiety/fear, sensory over-responsivity, and oral health behaviors and outcomes: A conceptual model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2380. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042380 Show abstract
Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is common across the lifespan and represents a barrier to proper oral health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study is to present a conceptual model of the relationships between DFA, general anxiety/fear, sensory over-responsivity (SOR), and/or oral health behaviors and outcomes. Two rounds of literature searches were performed using the PubMed database. Included articles examined DFA, general anxiety/fear, SOR, catastrophizing, and/or oral health behaviors and outcomes in typically developing populations across the lifespan. The relationships between the constructs were recorded and organized into a conceptual model. A total of 188 articles were included. The results provided supporting evidence for relationships between DFA and all other constructs included in the model (general anxiety/fear, SOR, poor oral health, irregular dental attendance, dental behavior management problems [DBMP], and need for treatment with pharmacological methods). Additionally, SOR was associated with general anxiety/fear and DBMP; general anxiety/fear was linked to poor oral health, irregular attendance, and DBMP. This model provides a comprehensive view of the relationships between person factors (e.g., general anxiety/fear, SOR, and DFA) and oral health behaviors and outcomes. This is valuable in order to highlight connections between constructs that may be targeted in the development of new interventions to improve oral health behaviors and outcomes as well as the experience of DFA.
Keywords. dental anxiety; dental fear; oral health behaviors; general anxiety; sensory over-responsivity; dental behavior management problems
Jatkar, A., Garrido, D., Zheng, S., Silverman, G., Elsayed, H., Huguely Davis, P., Lee, H., Crais, E. R., Sideris, J., Turner-Brown, L., Baranek, G. T., Watson, L. R., & Grzadzinski, R. (2022). Toddlers at elevated likelihood for autism: Exploring sensory and language treatment predictors. Journal of Early Intervention. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/10538151211067227 Show abstract
Baseline child characteristics may predict treatment outcomes in children with or at elevated likelihood of developing autism (EL-ASD). Little is known about the role of child sensory and language features on treatment outcome. Participants were randomly assigned to a parent-mediated intervention or control condition. Analyses explored the relationship between baseline child sensory and language characteristics and changes in ASD symptoms over approximately 9 months. Higher baseline sensory hyporeactivity was significantly related to less improvement in social communication (SC) for the treatment group only. More baseline atypical vocalizations were significantly related to less improvement on SC across treatment and control groups. This work provides an initial framework to encourage the tailoring of interventions for EL-ASD children, suggesting sensory reactivity and atypical vocalizations may be useful behaviors to consider in treatment planning.
Fang, Y., Baker, N. A., Dole, J., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Quality of carpal tunnel syndrome patient education handouts available on the Internet: A systematic analysis of content and design. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 103(2), 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.08.010 Show abstract
Objective. To evaluate the quality of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patient education handouts and identify the best resources for patients and clinicians.
Design. A document content analysis of handouts identified through a systematic internet search using 8 search terms on Google and Bing and a hand search of professional association websites.
Setting. Not Applicable.
Participants. Documents were identified from the top 50 search results across 16 individual searches. Included documents provided general patient education for CTS; descriptive websites, videos, and research studies were excluded.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. Content analysis was conducted using the Information Score (IS) tool to evaluate completeness of information [0%-100%], and misleading treatment recommendations were identified. Design analysis was conducted using the Patient Material Assessment Tool (PEMAT-P) [0-100%] and two widely-used readability formulas, Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Using these results, all handouts were rated with a summative 12-point scale.
Results. Of 805 unique search results, we included 56 CTS handouts. The average IS was 74.6% ± 17.9%. 78.6% of the handouts mentioned non-evidence-based treatment recommendations. The average PEMAT-P score was 70.2% ± 10.9% and the average readability grade level was 7.7 ± 1.7. Only 3 handouts were identified as high quality based on the 12-point summative scores, while 22 handouts had mixed quality and 17 handouts had low quality on both content and design.
Conclusions. Findings of this study suggest a lack of high-quality and easily understandable CTS patient education handouts. Most handouts contained unreliable treatment information. Improvements are needed to ensure patients’ ability to understand and manage this condition.
Keywords. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Health Literacy; Patient Education
Pozzi, F., Sousa, C. O., Plummer, H. A., Andrade, B., Awokuse, D., Kono, N., Mack, W. J., Roll, S. C., & Michener, L. A. (2022). Development of shoulder pain with job-related repetitive load: mechanisms of tendon pathology and anxiety. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 31(2), 225-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.09.007 Show abstract
Background. The paucity of longitudinal clinical studies limits our understanding of the development of shoulder pain with repetitive shoulder tasks, and its association with underlying mind and body mechanisms. Tendon thickening characterizes painful shoulder supraspinatus tendinopathy, and the perception of pain can be affected by the presence of psychological factors such as anxiety and depression. This study determined the incidence of shoulder pain in novice individuals exposed to repetitive shoulder tasks, and the associated change in outcomes of supraspinatus tendon morphology and measures of anxiety and depression.
Methods. We recruited dental hygiene (DH) students (N = 45, novice and exposed to shoulder repetitive tasks) and occupational therapy (OT) students (N = 52, novice, but not exposed to shoulder repetitive tasks), following them over their first year of training. We measured shoulder pain, supraspinatus morphology via ultrasound, psychosocial distress via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We compared the incidence of shoulder pain (defined as a change of visual analog pain scale greater than minimal clinically important difference) between DH and OT students using Fisher’s exact test. We used mixed-effects models to longitudinally compare the change in outcomes between three groups: DH students that develop and did not develop shoulder pain, and OT students.
Results. The incidence of shoulder pain is higher in DH students [relative risk = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 11.4]. After one year, DH students with pain had the greatest thickening of the supraspinatus (0.7mm, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.9). The change in supraspinatus thickness of DH students with pain was greater than both DH students with no pain (0.4mm, 95%CI: 0.1, 0.8) and OT students (0.9mm, 95%CI: 0.5, 1.2). Anxiety score increased 3.8 points (95%CI: 1.6, 5.1) in DH students with pain, and 43% of DH students with pain had abnormal anxiety score at one-year (relative risk = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.0; 8.6).
Conclusion. Our results provide support for the theoretical model of repetitive load as a mechanism of tendinopathy. The supraspinatus tendon thickens in the presence of repetitive tasks, and thickens the most in those who develop shoulder pain. Concurrently, anxiety develops with shoulder pain, indicating a potential maladaptive central mechanism that may impact the perception of pain.
Keywords. supraspinatus; tendinopathy; anxiety; pain; shoulder
Kellner, P., Kwon, J., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Neurodevelopmental outcomes following preterm birth and the association with postmenstrual age at discharge. American Journal of Perinatology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1733-2690 Show abstract
Objective. This study aimed to (1) define the prevalence of motor, cognitive, and language delays in preterm infants born <32 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA); and (2) identify the relationship between the timing of discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and neurodevelopmental outcome in early childhood.
Study Design. This retrospective study of 172 preterm infants born <32 weeks EGA and hospitalized in a level-IV NICU captured medical factors, including timing of discharge, from the NICU stay. Standardized developmental testing at 1 to 2 years corrected age was conducted in the newborn follow-up clinic.
Results. At 1 to 2 years corrected age, the sample had an average Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) cognitive composite score of 91.5 ± 17.4, language composite score of 84.5 ± 17.3, and motor composite score of 88.9 ± 18.4. Lower EGA at birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and oxygen requirement for >28 days were independently associated with higher postmenstrual age (PMA) at NICU discharge. Higher PMA at discharge was associated with poorer cognitive outcome [p < 0.001, β = −1.1 (−1.6, −0.7)], poorer language outcome [p = 0.049, β = −0.5 (−0.9, −0.003)], and poorer motor outcome [p <0.001, β = −1.0 (−1.5, −0.5)]. For every additional week of hospitalization, scores were an average of 1.1 points lower in cognitive, 1.0 point lower in motor, and 0.5 points lower in language domains of the Bayley-III assessment.
Conclusion. Poorer cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were associated with longer hospitalization, even after controlling for medical risk factors known to be associated with poorer outcome. This provides further evidence for the potential role of the environment in impacting developmental outcomes of infants hospitalized in the NICU.
Keywords. hospitalization; neonatal intensive care unit; length of stay; postmenstrual age; outcomes; child development; risk factors; environment
Cogan, A. M., Bender Pape, T. L., Yeaw, J., DeKoven, M., Anupindi, R., & Jordan, N. (2022). Health care resource utilization and costs for adults with mild traumatic brain injury with chronic vestibular impairment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 103(1), 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.08.017 Show abstract
Objective. To quantify the economic burden of all-cause health care resource utilization (HCRU) among adults with and without chronic vestibular impairment (CVI) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
Design. Retrospective matched cohort study.
Setting. IQVIA Integrated Data Warehouse.
Participants. People with mTBI+CVI (n=20,441) matched on baseline age, sex, year of mTBI event, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score to people with mTBI only (n=20,441) (N=40,882).
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. All-cause health HCRU and costs at 12 and 24 months post mTBI diagnosis.
Results. People with mTBI+CVI had significantly higher all-cause HCRU and costs at both time points than those with mTBI only. Multivariable regression analysis showed that, when controlling for baseline variables, costs of care were 1.5 times higher for mTBI+CVI than mTBI only.
Conclusions. People who developed CVI after mTBI had greater overall HCRU and costs for up to 2 years after the injury event compared with people who did not develop CVI after controlling for age, sex, region, and CCI score. Further research on access to follow-up services and effectiveness of interventions to address CVI is warranted.
Keywords. Brain concussion; Costs and cost analysis; Health care costs; Postural balance; Rehabilitation
Badenoch, J. B., Rengasamy, E. R., Watson, C., Jansen, K., Chakraborty, S., Sundaram, R. D., Hafeez, D., Burchill, E., Saini, A., Thomas, L., Cross, B., Hunt, C. K., Conti, I., Ralovska, S., Hussain, Z., Butler, M., Pollak, T. A., Koychev, I., Michael, B. D., Holling, H., Nicholson, T. R., Rogers, J. P., & Rooney, A. G. (2022). Persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Communications, 4(1), fcab297. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab297 Show abstract
The nature and extent of persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19 are not established. To help inform mental health service planning in the pandemic recovery phase, we systematically determined the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in survivors of COVID-19. For this pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO ID CRD42021239750), we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO to 20 February 2021, plus our own curated database. We included peer-reviewed studies reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms at post-acute or later time-points after COVID-19 infection and in control groups where available. For each study, a minimum of two authors extracted summary data. For each symptom, we calculated a pooled prevalence using generalized linear mixed models. Heterogeneity was measured with I2. Subgroup analyses were conducted for COVID-19 hospitalization, severity and duration of follow-up. From 2844 unique titles, we included 51 studies (n = 18 917 patients). The mean duration of follow-up after COVID-19 was 77 days (range 14–182 days). Study quality was most commonly moderate. The most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptom was sleep disturbance [pooled prevalence = 27.4% (95% confidence interval 21.4–34.4%)], followed by fatigue [24.4% (17.5–32.9%)], objective cognitive impairment [20.2% (10.3–35.7%)], anxiety [19.1% (13.3–26.8%)] and post-traumatic stress [15.7% (9.9–24.1%)]. Only two studies reported symptoms in control groups, both reporting higher frequencies in COVID-19 survivors versus controls. Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2 = 79.6–98.6%). There was little or no evidence of differential symptom prevalence based on hospitalization status, severity or follow-up duration. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and persistent after recovery from COVID-19. The literature on longer-term consequences is still maturing but indicates a particularly high prevalence of insomnia, fatigue, cognitive impairment and anxiety disorders in the first 6 months after infection.
Keywords. COVID-19, neuropsychiatry, Long COVID, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, chronic COVID syndrome
Zavaliangos‐Petropulu, A., Tubi, M. A., Haddad, E., Zhu, A., Braskie, M. N., Jahanshad, N., Thompson, P. M., & Liew, S. (2022). Testing a convolutional neural network‐based hippocampal segmentation method in a stroke population. Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25210 Show abstract
As stroke mortality rates decrease, there has been a surge of effort to study poststroke dementia (PSD) to improve long‐term quality of life for stroke survivors. Hippocampal volume may be an important neuroimaging biomarker in poststroke dementia, as it has been associated with many other forms of dementia. However, studying hippocampal volume using MRI requires hippocampal segmentation. Advances in automated segmentation methods have allowed for studying the hippocampus on a large scale, which is important for robust results in the heterogeneous stroke population. However, most of these automated methods use a single atlas‐based approach and may fail in the presence of severe structural abnormalities common in stroke. Hippodeep, a new convolutional neural network‐based hippocampal segmentation method, does not rely solely on a single atlas‐based approach and thus may be better suited for stroke populations. Here, we compared quality control and the accuracy of segmentations generated by Hippodeep and two well‐accepted hippocampal segmentation methods on stroke MRIs (FreeSurfer 6.0 whole hippocampus and FreeSurfer 6.0 sum of hippocampal subfields). Quality control was performed using a stringent protocol for visual inspection of the segmentations, and accuracy was measured as volumetric correlation with manual segmentations. Hippodeep performed significantly better than both FreeSurfer methods in terms of quality control. All three automated segmentation methods had good correlation with manual segmentations and no one method was significantly more correlated than the others. Overall, this study suggests that both Hippodeep and FreeSurfer may be useful for hippocampal segmentation in stroke rehabilitation research, but Hippodeep may be more robust to stroke lesion anatomy.
Keywords. convolutional neural network, hippocampus, image segmentation, lesion, MRI, stroke
Liew, S., Zavaliangos‐Petropulu, A., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Hayward, K. S., Lohse, K. R., Juliano, J. M., Assogna, F., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dimyan, M. A., Dula, A. N., Ermer, E., Etherton, M. R., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hadidchi, S., Holguin, J. A., Hwang, D. H., Jung, S., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Khoshab, N., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Piras, F., Ramos‐Murguialday, A., Richard, G., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Rondina, J. M., Rost, N. S., Sanossian, N., Schweighofer, N., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Villringer, A., Ward, N. S., Werden, E., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Cramer, S. C., & Thompson, P. M. (2022). The ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group: Big data neuroimaging to study brain–behavior relationships after stroke. Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25015 Show abstract
The goal of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta‐Analysis (ENIGMA) Stroke Recovery working group is to understand brain and behavior relationships using well‐powered meta‐ and mega‐analytic approaches. ENIGMA Stroke Recovery has data from over 2,100 stroke patients collected across 39 research studies and 10 countries around the world, comprising the largest multisite retrospective stroke data collaboration to date. This article outlines the efforts taken by the ENIGMA Stroke Recovery working group to develop neuroinformatics protocols and methods to manage multisite stroke brain magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral and demographics data. Specifically, the processes for scalable data intake and preprocessing, multisite data harmonization, and large‐scale stroke lesion analysis are described, and challenges unique to this type of big data collaboration in stroke research are discussed. Finally, future directions and limitations, as well as recommendations for improved data harmonization through prospective data collection and data management, are provided.
Yao, B., & Roll, S. C. (2022). An ultrasound study of the mobility of the median nerve during composite finger movement in the healthy young wrist. Muscle and Nerve, 65(1), 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.27437 Show abstract
Introduction/Aims. There is a lack of consensus regarding median nerve movement in the carpal tunnel during composite finger flexion in healthy individuals. This study aimed to examine the amount and direction of median nerve movement and differentiate nerve mobility between dominant and non-dominant sides in a large healthy young adult cohort.
Methods. Sonographic videos of the median nerve during composite finger motion from extension to full flexion were analyzed in 197 participants without median nerve pathology. Displacement of the nerve’s centroid was calculated based on a change in the relative location of the nerve. Longitudinal nerve sliding was categorized as none, independently from the tendons, or with the tendons.
Results. In short axis, median nerves moved within 1 mm vertically and 3 mm horizontally; no direction was predominant. About half of the nerves (52.5%) slid independently while 26.9% slid with the tendons; 21.3% did not slide at all. On the non-dominant side, median nerves that slid with the tendons had a larger absolute vertical displacement than nerves that slid independently or did not slide at all (p<0.01). Nerves on the dominant side moved in a radial direction more frequently than on the non-dominant side (p=0.02).
Discussion. Transverse nerve movement during composite finger flexion in healthy individuals varies widely with no clear pattern in the direction of transverse movement or amount of longitudinal sliding. These data provide a foundation for future research to better understand the biomechanical contribution of nerve movement to median nerve pathologies.
Blanche, E. I., Reinoso, G., & Kiefer, D. B. (2021). The Structured Observations of Sensory Integration — Motor (SOSI-M): Administration manual. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.
Kingsley, K. L. (2021). Best practices in supporting social, emotional, and self-regulation skills. In G. F. Clark & S. Parks (Eds.), Best practices for occupational therapy in early childhood (pp. 291-299). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press. Full text
Chernikova, M. A., Flores, G. D., Kilroy, E., Labus, J. S., Mayer, E. A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2021). The brain-gut-microbiome system: Pathways and implications for autism spectrum disorder. Nutrients, 13(12), 4497. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124497 Show abstract
Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of the most prevalent physiological symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of largely preclinical research suggests that dysbiotic gut microbiota may modulate brain function and social behavior, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these relationships and how they may influence the pathogenesis or severity of ASD. While various genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in ASD, this review aims to provide an overview of studies elucidating the mechanisms by which gut microbiota, associated metabolites, and the brain interact to influence behavior and ASD development, in at least a subgroup of individuals with gastrointestinal problems. Specifically, we review the brain-gut-microbiome system and discuss findings from current animal and human studies as they relate to social-behavioral and neurological impairments in ASD, microbiota-targeted therapies (i.e., probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation) in ASD, and how microbiota may influence the brain at molecular, structural, and functional levels, with a particular interest in social and emotion-related brain networks. A deeper understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior interactions has the potential to inform new therapies aimed at modulating this system and alleviating both behavioral and physiological symptomatology in individuals with ASD.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder; brain-gut-microbiome system; gut-brain axis; microbiome; probiotics; tryptophan pathway
Conforto, A. B., Machado, A. G., Ribeiro, N. H., Plow, E. B., Liew, S.-L., da Costa Leite, C., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Menezes, I., dos Anjos, S. M., Luccas, R., Hunter Peckham, P., & Cohen, L. G. (2021). Repetitive peripheral sensory stimulation as an add-on intervention for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: A randomized trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 35(12), 1059-1064. https://doi.org/10.1177/15459683211046259 Show abstract
Introduction. Repetitive peripheral sensory stimulation (RPSS) followed by 4-hour task-specific training (TST) improves upper limb motor function in subjects with stroke who experience moderate to severe motor upper limb impairments. Here, we compared effects of RPSS vs sham followed by a shorter duration of training in subjects with moderate to severe motor impairments in the chronic phase after stroke.
Methods. This single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial compared effects of 18 sessions of either 1.5 h of active RPSS or sham followed by a supervised session that included 45 min of TST of the paretic upper limb. In both groups, subjects were instructed to perform functional tasks at home, without supervision. The primary outcome measure was the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) after 6 weeks of treatment. Grasp and pinch strength were secondary outcomes.
Results. In intention-to-treat analysis, WMFT improved significantly in both active and sham groups at 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Grasp strength improved significantly in the active, but not in the sham group, at 3 and 6 weeks. Pinch strength improved significantly in both groups at 3 weeks, and only in the active group at 6 weeks.
Conclusions. The between-group difference in changes in WMFT was not statistically significant. Despite the short duration of supervised treatment, WMFT improved significantly in subjects treated with RPSS or sham. These findings are relevant to settings that impose constraints in duration of direct contact between therapists and patients. In addition, RPSS led to significant gains in hand strength.
Whitehill, L., Smith, J., Colditz, G., Le, T., Kellner, P., & Pineda, R. (2021). Socio-demographic factors related to parent engagement in the NICU and the impact of the SENSE program. Early Human Development, 163, 105486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105486 Show abstract
Background. Early parent engagement in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is important for both parent and infant mental health and for improving developmental outcomes. It remains unclear how different programs, such as the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program, may empower parents from various socio-demographic groups to engage in the NICU. An improved understanding could aid in individualizing interventions for those at the highest risk for health disparities.
Aims. This exploratory study, which was part of a larger study, sought to explore 1) socio-demographic factors related to parent presence and engagement in the NICU and 2) if the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program related to increased parent presence and engagement among different socio-demographic groups.
Methods. Seventy mother-infant dyads (≤ 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to SENSE programming (parent education and age-appropriate, positive sensory interventions for parents to conduct with their infants every day of hospitalization) or standard care after admission to the NICU. The amount of parent presence and participation in sensory activities was tracked using bedside logs, nursing records, and research team documentation.
Results. Being married (p=0.048; p=0.01), having private insurance (p<0.001; p=0.01), and having fewer children (p=0.004; p=0.03) related to more parent presence and engagement. Parents who were Black had less presence and engagement in the NICU (p=.04; p=0.02). Participation in the SENSE program was related to more parent presence and engagement among younger mothers (p=.002; p=<0.001) and among parents living farther distances from the hospital (p<0.001; p=0.004).
Conclusion. Programming, such as SENSE, can improve engagement among high-risk groups.
Baker, N. A., Dole, J., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Meta-synthesis of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment options: Developing consolidated clinical treatment recommendations to improve practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(11), 2261-2268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.03.034 Show abstract
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treatment contains ambiguities across and within disciplines. This meta-synthesis of professional guidelines consolidates clinical treatment recommendations for CTS treatment and classifies them by strength of evidence. We conducted a search of Google, Google Scholar, and PubMed for published clinical treatment recommendations for CTS. A systematic hand search was completed to identify additional professional organizations with published recommendations. We extracted any mentioned treatment from all sources but developed our final consolidated clinical treatment recommendations only from select rigorous guidelines based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria for trustworthy guidelines. We translated rating systems of the primary guidelines into a universal rating system to classify recommendations for consolidated clinical treatment recommendations. Our search yielded 30 sources that mentioned a total of 55 CTS treatments. Six of the sources met the IOM inclusion criteria. These primary guidelines provided recommendations for 46 of the 55 treatments, which were consolidated into 12 broad treatment categories. Surgery, positioning, and steroids were strongly supported. Conservative treatments provided by rehabilitation professionals were conditionally supported. Pharmaceuticals, supplements, and alternative treatments were not generally supported. CTS is a complex condition with a wide variety of treatments provided by a multitude of disciplines. Our consolidated clinical treatment recommendations offer a comprehensive outline of available treatments for CTS and contributes to the process of developing best practices for its treatment.
Keywords. Carpal tunnel syndrome; Guideline; Rehabilitation; Systematic review
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Scholten, J., Bender Pape, T., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Psychometric properties and sex differences on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation subscale (M2PI) in veterans with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(11), 2193-2200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.06.003 Show abstract
Objective. To evaluate the structural validity of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation Index (M2PI) in a sample of veterans and to assess whether the tool functioned similarly for male and female veterans.
Design. Rasch analysis of M2PI records from the National Veterans Traumatic Brain Injury Health Registry database from 2012-2018.
Setting. National VA Polytrauma System of Care outpatient settings.
Participants. Veterans with a clinically confirmed history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) (N=6065; 94% male).
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. M2PI, a 5-point Likert-type scale with 8 items. For this analysis, the 2 employment items were treated individually for a total of 9 items.
Results. The employment items misfit the Rasch Measurement model (paid employment mean square [MnSq]=1.40; other employment MnSq=1.34) and were removed from subsequent iterations. The final model had eigenvalue 1.87 on the first contrast, suggesting unidimensionality of the remaining 7 items. Item order from least to most participation restriction was transportation, self-care, residence management, financial management, initiation, leisure, and social contact. Wright's person separation reliability for nonnormal distributions was 0.93, indicating appropriateness of M2PI for making individual-level treatment decisions. Mean person measure was −0.92±1.34 logits, suggesting that participants did not report restrictions on most items (item mean=0 logits). A total of 3.8% of the sample had the minimum score (no impairment on all items), and 0.2% had the maximum score. Four items had different item calibrations (≥0.25 logits) for female compared with male veterans, but the hierarchy of items was unchanged when the female sample was examined separately.
Conclusions. These findings suggest that, although employment is a poor indicator of participation restrictions among veterans with TBI, the M2PI is unidimensional. Because of subtle differences in scale function between male and female participants, M2PI should be part of a more thorough clinical interview about participation strengths and restrictions.
Keywords. Brain injuries, traumatic; Community participation; Psychometrics; Rehabilitation; Veterans
Donnelly, M. R., Reinberg, R., Ito, K. L., Saldana, D., Neureither, M., Schmiesing, A., Jahng, E., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Virtual reality for the treatment of anxiety disorders: A scoping review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(6), 7506205040. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.046169 Show abstract
Importance. Virtual reality in head-mounted displays (HMD-VR) may be a valuable tool in occupational therapy to address anxiety. Findings from the virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) literature may facilitate translation of HMD-VR to occupational therapy psychosocial practice.
Objective. To explore how HMD-VR has been used to treat anxiety through VRET and could be translated to occupational therapy.
Data Sources. We searched seven electronic databases for articles published between 2000 and 2020: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Search terms included HMD-VR constructs, products, and therapy concepts.
Study Selection and Data Collection. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to report studies implementing VRET to treat anxiety. At least two reviewers assessed each citation, and a third resolved disagreements. Articles were included if they were in English, reported experimental data, and used HMD-VR. Letters, commentaries, book chapters, technical descriptions, theoretical papers, conference proceedings (≤4 pages), and reviews were excluded.
Findings. Twenty-eight studies used HMD-VR to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3), specific phobias (n = 19), and performance-based social anxiety (n = 6); protocols and levels of evidence varied (randomized controlled trials, n = 11; controlled trials without randomization, n = 6; case–control or cohort studies, n = 11). Qualitative examination indicates HMD-VR is an effective treatment tool.
Conclusions and Relevance. HMD-VR can be a valuable tool for occupational therapy to simulate environments where clients with anxiety disorders participate. Eliciting presence through multisensory features and body representation may enhance outcomes.
Awada, M., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. (2021). Associations among home indoor environmental quality factors and worker health while working from home during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Buildings and Cities, 2(4), 041001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052822 Show abstract
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 virus forced office workers to conduct their daily work activities from home over an extended period. Given this unique situation, an opportunity emerged to study the satisfaction of office workers with indoor environmental quality (IEQ) factors of their houses where work activities took place and associate these factors with mental and physical health. We designed and administered a questionnaire that was open for 45 days during the COVID-19 pandemic and received valid data from 988 respondents. The results show that low satisfaction with natural lighting, glare and humidity predicted eye related symptoms, while low satisfaction with noise was a strong predictor of fatigue or tiredness, headaches or migraines, anxiety, and depression or sadness. Nose and throat related symptoms and skin related symptoms were only uniquely predicted by low satisfaction with humidity. Low satisfaction with glare uniquely predicted an increase in musculoskeletal discomfort. Symptoms related to mental stress, rumination or worry were predicted by low satisfaction with air quality and noise. Finally, low satisfaction with noise and indoor temperature predicted the prevalence of symptoms related to trouble concentrating, maintaining attention or focus. Workers with higher income were more satisfied with humidity, air quality and indoor temperature and had better overall mental health. Older individuals had increased satisfaction with natural lighting, humidity, air quality, noise, and indoor temperature. Findings from this study can inform future design practices that focus on hybrid home-work environments by highlighting the impact of IEQ factors on occupant well-being.
Liew, S.-L., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Schweighofer, N., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Lohse, K. R., Banaj, N., Barisano, G., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Ciullo, V., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dula, A. N., Egorova, N., Feng, W., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K. S., Holguin, J. A., Hordacre, B., Hwang, D. H., Kautz, S. A., Salah Khlif, M., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lo, B., Liu, J., Lin, D., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Nordvik, J. E., Petoe, M. A., Piras, F., Raju, S., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Thijs, V. N., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C. J., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Wolf, S. L., Cramer, S. C., Thompson, P. M., & ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group. (2021). Smaller spared subcortical nuclei are associated with worse post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes in 28 cohorts worldwide. Brain Communications, 3(4), fcab254. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab254 Show abstract
Up to two-thirds of stroke survivors experience persistent sensorimotor impairments. Recovery relies on the integrity of spared brain areas to compensate for damaged tissue. Deep grey matter structures play a critical role in the control and regulation of sensorimotor circuits. The goal of this work is to identify associations between volumes of spared subcortical nuclei and sensorimotor behaviour at different timepoints after stroke. We pooled high-resolution T1-weighted MRI brain scans and behavioural data in 828 individuals with unilateral stroke from 28 cohorts worldwide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear mixed-effects models related post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour to non-lesioned subcortical volumes (Bonferroni-corrected, P < 0.004). We tested subacute (≤90 days) and chronic (≥180 days) stroke subgroups separately, with exploratory analyses in early stroke (≤21 days) and across all time. Sub-analyses in chronic stroke were also performed based on class of sensorimotor deficits (impairment, activity limitations) and side of lesioned hemisphere. Worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with a smaller ipsilesional thalamic volume in both early (n = 179; d = 0.68) and subacute (n = 274, d = 0.46) stroke. In chronic stroke (n = 404), worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.52) and nucleus accumbens (d = 0.39) volumes, and a larger ipsilesional lateral ventricle (d = −0.42). Worse chronic sensorimotor impairment specifically (measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment; n = 256) was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.72) and larger lateral ventricle (d = −0.41) volumes, while several measures of activity limitations (n = 116) showed no significant relationships. In the full cohort across all time (n = 828), sensorimotor behaviour was associated with the volumes of the ipsilesional nucleus accumbens (d = 0.23), putamen (d = 0.33), thalamus (d = 0.33) and lateral ventricle (d = −0.23). We demonstrate significant relationships between post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour and reduced volumes of deep grey matter structures that were spared by stroke, which differ by time and class of sensorimotor measure. These findings provide additional insight into how different cortico-thalamo-striatal circuits support post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes.
Pineda, R. G., Lisle, J., Ferrara, L., Knudsen, K., Kumar, R., & Fernandez-Fernandez, A. (2021). Neonatal therapy staffing in the United States and relationships to NICU type and location, level of acuity, and population factors. American Journal of Perinatology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1678-0002 Show abstract
Objectives. To 1) estimate the total pool of neonatal therapists and the average number represented in each US-based NICU, and 2) investigate the relationships between the number and type of neonatal therapy team members to NICU/hospital, population, and therapy factors.
Study Design. This study used several methods of data collection (surveys, phone calls, website searches) that were combined to establish a comprehensive list of factors across each NICU in the US.
Results. We estimate 2333 neonatal therapy FTEs, with 4232 neonatal therapists covering those FTEs in the US. Among 564 NICUs, 432 (76%) had a dedicated therapy team, 103 (18%) had PRN therapy coverage only, and 35 (6%) had no neonatal therapy team. Having a dedicated therapy team was more likely in level IV (n=112; 97%) and III (n=269; 83%) NICUs compared to level II NICUs (n=51; 42%) (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was related to having more NICU beds (p<0.001), being part of a free-standing children’s hospital or children’s hospital within a hospital (p<0.001), and being part of an academic medical center or community hospital (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was more common in the Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and West (p=0.001), but was not related to the proportion of the community living in poverty or belonging to racial/ethnic minorities (p>0.05). There was an average of 17 beds per neonatal therapy FTE, a good marker of therapy coverage based on NICU size. Three-hundred US-based NICUs (22%) had at least one Certified Neonatal Therapist (CNT) in early 2020, with CNT presence being more likely in higher acuity NICUs (59% of Level IV NICUs had at least one CNT).
Conclusions. Understanding the composition of neonatal therapy teams at different hospitals across the US can drive change to expand neonatal therapy aimed at optimizing outcomes of high-risk families.
Pyatak, E. A., Hernandez, R., Pham, L., Mehdiyeva, K., Schneider, S., Peters, A., Ruelas, V., Crandall, J., Lee, P.-J., Jin, H., Hoogendoorn, C. J., Crespo-Ramos, G., Mendez-Rodriguez, H., Harmel, M., Walker, M., Serafin-Dokhan, S., Gonzalez, J. S., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2021). Function and emotion in everyday life with type 1 diabetes (FEEL-T1D): A fully remote intensive longitudinal study of blood glucose, function, and emotional well-being in adults with type 1 diabetes. JMIR Research Protocols, 10(10), e30901. https://doi.org/10.2196/30901 Show abstract
Background. While short-term blood glucose (BG) levels and variability are thought to underlie diminished function and emotional well-being in people with T1D, these relationships are poorly understood. The Function and Emotion in Everyday Life with T1D (FEEL-T1D) study focuses on investigating these short-term dynamic relationships among BG, function, and emotional well-being in adults with T1D.
Objective. To present the FEEL-T1D study design, methods, and study progress to date, including adaptations necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic to implement the study fully remotely.
Methods. The FEEL-T1D study will recruit 200 adults 18-75 years old with T1D. Data collection includes a comprehensive survey battery, along with 14 days of intensive longitudinal data using blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), ecological momentary assessments (EMA), ambulatory cognitive tasks, and accelerometers. All study procedures are conducted remotely, through mailing study equipment and using videoconferencing for study visits.
Results. To date, after 12 months of recruitment, 124 participants have enrolled in the FEEL-T1D study. Over 80% have provided concurrent CGM, EMA, and accelerometer data for at least 10 of the 14 days of data collection, and nearly 90% of EMA surveys have been completed, with minimal missing data.
Conclusions. Thus far, our reconfiguration of the FEEL-T1D protocol to be implemented remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic has been a success. The FEEL-T1D study will elucidate the dynamic relationships between blood glucose, emotional well-being, cognitive function and participation in daily activities. In doing so, it will pave the way for innovative just-in-time interventions and produce actionable insights to facilitate tailoring of diabetes treatment to optimize function and well-being among individuals with T1D.
Fukumura, Y. E., Schott, J. M., Lucas, G. M., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Negotiating time and space when working from home: Experiences during COVID-19. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 41(4), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492211033830 Show abstract
Stay-at-home mandates following the COVID-19 pandemic increased work from home (WFH). While WFH offers many benefits, navigating work in nontraditional contexts can be a challenge. The objective of this study was to explore the benefits and challenges of WFH during COVID-19 to identify supports and resources necessary. Comments from two free-response questions on a survey regarding experiences of WFH (N = 648, N = 366) were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Four themes emerged: time use, considerations of working in the home space, intersections between work-life and home-life, and temporality of WFH as situated within a pandemic. Across all themes were concerns related to participation in both work and home roles, work performance, and well-being. Findings highlight the importance of support during times of disruption of occupational patterns, roles, and routines. Despite challenges, many individuals hoped to continue WFH. Organizations should consider the complex intersections of work-life and home-life to develop supportive policies and resources.
Keywords. work; survey; context; health; occupational balance
Hernandez, R., Pyatak, E. A., Vigen, C. L., Jin, H., Schneider, S., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Understanding worker well-being relative to high-workload and recovery activities across a whole day: Pilot testing an ecological momentary assessment technique. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19), 10354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910354 Show abstract
Occupational health and safety is experiencing a paradigm shift from focusing only on health at the workplace toward a holistic approach and worker well-being framework that considers both work and non-work factors. Aligned with this shift, the purpose of this pilot study was to examine how, within a person, frequencies of high-workload and recovery activities from both work and non-work periods were associated with same day well-being measures. We analyzed data on 45 workers with type 1 diabetes from whom we collected activity data 5–6 times daily over 14 days. More frequent engagement in high-workload activities was associated with lower well-being on multiple measures including higher stress. Conversely, greater recovery activity frequency was mostly associated with higher well-being indicated by lower stress and higher positive affect. Overall, our results provide preliminary validity evidence for measures of high-workload and recovery activity exposure covering both work and non-work periods that can inform and support evaluations of worker well-being.
Keywords. workload; recovery; ecological momentary assessment; type 1 diabetes; workweek; healthy work design and well-being; future of work
Rodakowski, J., Mroz, T. M., Ciro, C., Lysack, C. L., Womack, J. L., Chippendale, T., Cutchin, M., Fritz, H., Fields, B., Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Orellano-Colón, E. M., Rotenberg, S., Toto, P. E., Lee, D., Jewell, V. D., McDonald, M. V., Arthanat, S., Somerville, E., Park, M., & Verrier Piersol, C. (2021). Stimulating research to enhance aging in place. OTJR: Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 41(4), 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492211022271 Show abstract
Older adults may benefit from interventions to successfully age in place. Research has an opportunity to test interventions and implementation strategies to fulfill the needs of older adults through collective evidence building. The purpose of this article is to describe the proceedings of the American Occupational Therapy Foundation (AOTF) 2019 Planning Grant Collective and describe the areas of research that were identified as critical. The AOTF convened scientists with expertise in the area of aging in place to catalyze research on aging in place for older adults. Four priority areas in the aging in place literature were highlighted: (a) identification of factors that support aging in place, (b) classification of processes by which family members and care partners are included in aging in place efforts, (c) categorization of technology supporting older adults to age in place, and (d) development of science that clarifies implementation of evidence-based practice.
Angell, A. M., Deavenport-Saman, A., Yin, L., Zou, B., Bai, C., Varma, D., & Solomon, O. (2021). Sex differences in co-occurring conditions among autistic children and youth in Florida: A retrospective cohort study (2012–2019). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(10), 3759–3765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04841-5 Show abstract
Autistic children have a high prevalence of co-occurring mental health, developmental/behavioral, and medical conditions, but research on sex/gender differences has been mixed. We used Florida healthcare claims data to characterize sex differences (female/male) in co-occurring conditions among autistic children ages 1–21 (N = 83,500). After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, urbanicity, and insurance, autistic girls had significantly higher odds of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and sleep disorders compared to autistic boys. Autistic girls had significantly lower odds of ADHD. The findings contribute to the growing body of research on the unique healthcare needs of autistic girls.
Keywords. Autism spectrum disorder, Co-occurring condition, Sex, Gender, Healthcare claims, Girls
Roll, S. C., Lucas, G. M., & Becerik-Gerber, B. (2021). Authors’ response to “Work from home (WFH) during COVID-19: Is virtual reality (VR) a new solution to new problems?”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(10), e757-e758. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002340
Pineda, R., Smith, J., Roussin, J., Wallendorf, M., Kellner, P., & Colditz, G. (2021). Randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of consistent, developmentally-appropriate, and evidence-based multisensory exposures in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 41, 2449–2462. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-01078-7 Show abstract
Objective. Evaluate the effect of a manualized multisensory program, applied across NICU hospitalization, on infant and parent outcomes.
Study design. Seventy parent-infant dyads (born ≤32 weeks gestation) in a Level IV NICU were randomized at birth to the multisensory program or standard-of-care. Parents in the multisensory group administered prespecified amounts of age-appropriate, evidence-based sensory interventions to their infants each day during NICU hospitalization according to the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program.
Results. Infants who received the SENSE program had more lethargy on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) (p = 0.05), even after controlling for medical and social risk (p = 0.043), and had higher Communication scores on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (p = 0.04) at 1-year corrected age, but this relationship failed to reach significance after controlling for medical and social risk (p = 0.12).
Conclusion. The SENSE program shows promise for improving outcomes, but more research with larger sample sizes is needed.
Fields, B., Rodakowski, J., Jewell, V. D., Arthanat, S., Park, M., Verrier Piersol, C., Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Womack, J., & Mroz, T. M. (2021). Unpaid caregiving and aging in place in the United States: Advancing the value of occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(5), 7505347010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.044735 Show abstract
Unpaid caregivers are often expected to help family members or friends overcome activity limitations and participation restrictions to successfully age in place. Caregivers assume multiple responsibilities, such as managing their own physical and psychosocial needs and navigating a complex health care system, and many feel ill equipped to fulfill the necessary health care responsibilities for their care recipients. Underprepared caregivers may cause poor outcomes for care recipients. Federal and state policy proposals call attention to the need to better support caregivers, especially as their numbers increase. Occupational therapy practitioners are well positioned to effectively engage caregivers as they navigate the health care system. The occupational therapy process looks broadly at the functional abilities, environmental contexts, and occupational demands that play a pivotal role in successful aging in place for clients and better outcomes for their caregivers. Now is the time to define occupational therapy’s distinct value to this area.
Keywords. aging, caregivers, health, clients, productive aging, occupational therapists, interdisciplinary treatment approach
Awada, M., Lucas, G., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. (2021). Working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic: Impact on office worker productivity and work experience. Work, 69(4), 1171-1189. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-210301 Show abstract
Background. With the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations embraced Work From Home (WFH). An important component of transitioning to WFH is the effect on workers, particularly related to their productivity and work experience.
Objectives. The objective of this study is to examine how worker-, workspace-, and work-related factors affected productivity and time spent at a workstation on a typical WFH day during the pandemic.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to collect the necessary information. Data from 988 respondents were included in the analyses.
Results. Overall perception of productivity level among workers did not change relative to their in-office productivity before the pandemic. Female, older, and high-income workers were likely to report increased productivity. Productivity was positively influenced by better mental and physical health statuses, having a teenager, increased communication with coworkers and having a dedicated room for work. Number of hours spent at a workstation increased by approximately 1.5 hours during a typical WFH day. Longer hours were reported by individuals who had school age children, owned an office desk or an adjustable chair, and had adjusted their work hours.
Conclusion. The findings highlight key factors for employers and employees to consider for improving the WFH experience.
Haugg, A., Renz, F. M., Nicholson, A. A., Lor, C., Götzendorfer, S. J., Sladky, R., Skouras, S., McDonald, A., Craddock, C., Hellrung, L., Kirschner, M., Herdener, M., Koush, Y., Papoutsi, M., Keynan, J., Hendler, T., Cohen Kadosh, K., Zich, C., Kohl, S. H., Hallschmid, M., MacInnes, J., Adcock, R. A., Dickerson, K. C., Chen, N.-K., Young, K., Bodurka, J., Marxen, M., Yao, S., Becker, B., Auer, T., Schweizer, R., Pamplona, G., Lanius, R. A., Emmert, K., Haller, S., Van De Ville, D., Kim, D.-Y., Lee, J.-H., Marins, T., Megumi, F., Sorger, B., Kamp, T., Liew, S.-L., Veit, R., Spetter, M., Weiskopf, N., Scharnowski, F., & Steyrl, D. (2021). Predictors of real-time fMRI neurofeedback performance and improvement — A machine learning mega-analysis. NeuroImage, 237, 118207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118207 Show abstract
Real-time fMRI neurofeedback is an increasingly popular neuroimaging technique that allows an individual to gain control over his/her own brain signals, which can lead to improvements in behavior in healthy participants as well as to improvements of clinical symptoms in patient populations. However, a considerably large ratio of participants undergoing neurofeedback training do not learn to control their own brain signals and, consequently, do not benefit from neurofeedback interventions, which limits clinical efficacy of neurofeedback interventions. As neurofeedback success varies between studies and participants, it is important to identify factors that might influence neurofeedback success. Here, for the first time, we employed a big data machine learning approach to investigate the influence of 20 different design-specific (e.g. activity vs. connectivity feedback), region of interest-specific (e.g. cortical vs. subcortical) and subject-specific factors (e.g. age) on neurofeedback performance and improvement in 608 participants from 28 independent experiments.
With a classification accuracy of 60% (considerably different from chance level), we identified two factors that significantly influenced neurofeedback performance: Both the inclusion of a pre-training no-feedback run before neurofeedback training and neurofeedback training of patients as compared to healthy participants were associated with better neurofeedback performance. The positive effect of pre-training no-feedback runs on neurofeedback performance might be due to the familiarization of participants with the neurofeedback setup and the mental imagery task before neurofeedback training runs. Better performance of patients as compared to healthy participants might be driven by higher motivation of patients, higher ranges for the regulation of dysfunctional brain signals, or a more extensive piloting of clinical experimental paradigms. Due to the large heterogeneity of our dataset, these findings likely generalize across neurofeedback studies, thus providing guidance for designing more efficient neurofeedback studies specifically for improving clinical neurofeedback-based interventions. To facilitate the development of data-driven recommendations for specific design details and subpopulations the field would benefit from stronger engagement in open science research practices and data sharing.
Chakraborty, S., Saetta, G., Simon, C., Lenggenhager, B., & Ruddy, K. (2021). Could brain–computer interface be a new therapeutic approach for body integrity dysphoria? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 699830. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.699830 Show abstract
Patients suffering from body integrity dysphoria (BID) desire to become disabled, arising from a mismatch between the desired body and the physical body. We focus here on the most common variant, characterized by the desire for amputation of a healthy limb. In most reported cases, amputation of the rejected limb entirely alleviates the distress of the condition and engenders substantial improvement in quality of life. Since BID can lead to life-long suffering, it is essential to identify an effective form of treatment that causes the least amount of alteration to the person’s anatomical structure and functionality. Treatment methods involving medications, psychotherapy, and vestibular stimulation have proven largely ineffective. In this hypothesis article, we briefly discuss the characteristics, etiology, and current treatment options available for BID before highlighting the need for new, theory driven approaches. Drawing on recent findings relating to functional and structural brain correlates of BID, we introduce the idea of brain–computer interface (BCI)/neurofeedback approaches to target altered patterns of brain activity, promote re-ownership of the limb, and/or attenuate stress and negativity associated with the altered body representation.
Cogan, A. M., Haines, C. E., & Devore, M. D. (2021). Intersections of US military culture, hegemonic masculinity, and health care among injured male service members. Men and Masculinities, 24(3), 468-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X19872793 Show abstract
In this paper, we explore how socially constructed hegemonic masculinity permeates military culture, and how this cultural context intersects with the seeking and receiving of health care by active-duty US military service members with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) (n = 18). Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups. Using Bourdieu’s theory of practice as an analytical framework, we identified four themes: maintenance of social capital, remaining in the field, reframing health care use to bolster social capital, and risk of health care use as not being rewarded. Each emerged from statements about why participants had avoided seeking health care for physical and psychological needs during their military service. We consider our findings in the context of maintaining status within an institutional steeped in hegemonic masculinity and describe implications for reframing caring for the body and dealing with problems as masculine acts.
Keywords. mild traumatic brain injury, military personnel, culture, masculinity
Sprugnoli, G., Rossi, S., Liew, S.-L., Bricolo, E., Costantini, G., Salvi, C., Golby, A. J., Musaeus, C. S., Pascual-Leone, A., Rossi, A., & Santarnecchi, E. (2021). Enhancement of semantic integration reasoning by tRNS. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 21, 736–746. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00885-x Show abstract
The right hemisphere is involved with the integrative processes necessary to achieve global coherence during reasoning and discourse processing. Specifically, the right temporal lobe has been proven to facilitate the processing of distant associate relationships, such as generating novel ideas. Previous studies showed a specific swing of alpha and gamma oscillatory activity over the right parieto-occipital lobe and the right anterior temporal lobe respectively, when people solve semantic problems with a specific strategy, i.e., insight problem-solving. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the right parietal and temporal lobes for semantic integration using transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS). We administered a set of pure semantics (i.e., Compound Remote Associates [CRA]) and visuo-semantic problems (i.e., Rebus Puzzles) to a sample of 31 healthy volunteers. Behavioral results showed that tRNS stimulation over the right temporal lobe enhances CRA accuracy (+12%), while stimulation on the right parietal lobe causes a decrease of response time on the same task (−2,100 ms). No effects were detected for Rebus Puzzles. Our findings corroborate the involvement of the right temporal and parietal lobes when solving purely semantic problems but not when they involve visuo-semantic material, also providing causal evidence for their postulated different roles in the semantic integration process and promoting tRNS as a candidate tool to boost verbal reasoning in humans.
Roll, S. C., Hardison, M. E., Forrest, J. L., Colclazier, N. L., Sumi, J. Y., & Baker, N. A. (2021). A standardized protocol for the comprehensive assessment of dental hygiene work. Work, 69(3), 1041-1052. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-213534 Show abstract
Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent in dental hygienists. Although engineering controls and ergonomic training is available, it is unclear why this intransigent problem continues. One possible barrier is that a comprehensive, standardized protocol for evaluating dental hygiene work does not exist.
Objective. This study aimed to generate a valid and reliable observational protocol for the assessment of dental hygiene work.
Methods. An iterative process was used to establish and refine an ecologically valid video acquisition and observation protocol to assess key activities, tasks, and performance components of dental hygiene work.
Results. Good inter-rater reliability was achieved across all variables when the final coding scheme was completed by three independent raters.
Conclusions. This work provides an exemplar of the process required to generate a comprehensive protocol for evaluating the work components of a particular job, and provides standardized nomenclature for use by scientists and practitioners interested in understanding and addressing the pervasive issue of work-related disorders in dental hygienists.
Keywords. Dental hygienists; clinical; ergonomics; research protocol.
Yao, B., Takata, S. C., Mack, W. J., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Modeling extracurricular activity participation with physical and mental health in college students over time. Journal of American College Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1926263 Show abstract
Objective. To describe extracurricular activity participation and explore its relationship with college students’ health.
Participants. 159 college students majoring in dental hygiene or occupational therapy.
Methods. Data were collected prospectively at baseline, one- and two-year follow-ups. Self-reported participation in extracurricular activities over the past six months was grouped into eight categories: Fitness, Sports, Creative arts, Leisure, Social, Work, Caregiving, and Animal care. Physical and mental health were measured using SF-36, a valid tool measuring general health.
Results. Participation in fitness, sports, creative arts, and work significantly decreased at one-year and two-year follow-ups (p < 0.01). Work/volunteer activity participation was associated with poorer physical health (β = –1.4, 95% CI: (–2.2, −0.5), p < 0.01), but a change from nonparticipation to some participation in work/volunteer activity was associated with better mental health (β = 2.6, 95% CI (0.3, 4.9), p = 0.04).
Conclusions. Educators should consider the potential impact of maintaining extracurricular activities on college students’ health when designing academic courses.
Keywords. College student; extracurricular activity; health; SF-36; well-being
Laine, C. M., Cohn, B. A., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2021). Temporal control of muscle synergies is linked with alpha-band neural drive. The Journal of Physiology, 599(13), 3385-3402. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP281232 Show abstract
During movement, groups of muscles may be controlled together by the nervous system as an adaptable functional entity, or ‘synergy’. The rules governing when (or if) this occurs during voluntary behaviour in humans are not well understood, at least in part because synergies are usually defined by correlated patterns of muscle activity without regard for the underlying structure of their neural control. In this study, we investigated the extent to which comodulation of muscle output (i.e. correlation of electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes) implies that muscles share intermuscular neural input (assessed via EMG–EMG coherence analysis). We first examined this relationship among pairs of upper limb muscles engaged in an arm cycling task. We then applied a novel multidimensional EMG–EMG coherence analysis allowing synergies to be characterized on the basis of shared neural drive. We found that alpha-band coherence (8–16 Hz) is related to the degree to which overall muscle activity levels correlate over time. The extension of this coherence analysis to describe the cross-muscle distribution and temporal modulation of alpha-band drive revealed a close match to the temporal and structural features of traditionally defined muscle synergies. Interestingly, the coherence-derived neural drive was inversely associated with, and preceded, changes in EMG amplitudes by ∼200 ms. Our novel characterization of how alpha-band neural drive is dynamically distributed among muscles is a fundamental step forward in understanding the neural origins and correlates of muscle synergies.
Keywords. alpha-band; coherence; EMG; synergy.
Krause, D., Roll, S. C., Javaherian-Dysinger, H., & Daher, N. (2021). Comparative efficacy of the dorsal application of Kinesio tape and splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Hand Therapy, 34(3), 351-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2020.03.010 Show abstract
Background. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms are problematic especially when signs and symptoms are not substantial enough to require surgical intervention. Conservative treatments have mixed effectiveness, yet are one of the best options for mild to moderate CTS. Kinesio tape is an emerging modality, as it provides biomechanical support while allowing movement.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of dorsal application of Kinesio tape on occupational performance as measured by pain and function in individuals with mild to moderate CTS, as compared with the accepted nonsurgical intervention of general cockup orthosis and lumbrical stretching exercises versus sham tape.
Study Design. Single-blind randomized controlled trial.
Methods. Forty-four participants (68 wrists) with CTS were randomized to one of three interventions: Kinesio tape group, sham group, or standard protocol group. Each completed baseline and four subsequent measurements of numeric pain rating scale, visual analog scale (VAS), Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), grip and pinch, with application of intervention every three days. Daily symptom journals were completed, standard protocol group recorded wearing schedule and exercises.
Results. In the forearm and wrist, a significant reduction in median numeric pain rating scale pain scores in Kinesio tape group was observed (r = 0.76, P = .01; r = 0.77, P = .01; respectively), but not in the standard protocol group (r = 0.51, P = .17; r = 0.53, P = .11) and sham group (r = 0.46, P = .30; r = 0.39, P = .43) with a minimal clinically important difference of 1.0. In the Kinesio tape group, the forearm (24%) and wrist (36%) reached the clinical significance as compared with the standard protocol forearm (18%) and wrist (32%).
The minimal clinically important difference for pain reduction on the visual analog scale was 1.64. Kinesio tape and sham group had significant improvement in function, but not the standard protocol group.
Discussion. This study provides promising evidence for the use of Kinesio tape as a possible conservative intervention for management of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate CTS. The study also illuminates new considerations of younger, active individuals reporting signs and symptoms of CTS as well as mechanism of effects on pain reduction.
Conclusions. Kinesio tape provided additional improvement in pain and function as compared to the standard approach.
Keywords. Carpal tunnel syndrome, Kinesio tape, Conservative interventions, Functional performance
Wilcox, J., & Frank, E. (2021). Occupational therapy for the long haul of post-COVID syndrome: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Suppl. 1), 7511210060. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.049223 Show abstract
Prolonged symptoms from the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), otherwise known as long COVID, postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), or post-COVID syndrome, are affecting an increasingly high number of patients after severe, moderate, and mild acute COVID-19 infections. Using evidence-based practice strategies, this case report describes occupational therapy evaluation and treatment approaches, plan of care, and associated outcomes for one client experiencing long COVID symptoms in the outpatient setting.
Wilcox, J., Peterson, K. S., Lewis, C. M., & Margetis, J. L. (2021). Occupational therapy during COVID-19–related critical illness: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Suppl. 1), 7511210010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.049196 Show abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges for occupational therapy practitioners working in acute and critical care settings. Using the best available evidence, this case report overviews a prototypical COVID-19 disease course and discusses key aspects of clinical reasoning for practitioners working with this novel population. Following a single patient admitted to a tertiary academic medical center, the authors review the occupational profile and medical history, common impairments, the intervention plan, and strategies to align the occupational therapy and medical goals of care.
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Davidson, L. F., Khromouchkine, N., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Response to Hori et al., “Association of Speech Therapy Time and Cognitive Recovery in Stroke Patients: A Comparison of Studies” [Letter to the editor]. JAMDA, 22(6), 1328-1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.02.026
Rogers, J. P., Watson, C. J., Badenoch, J., Cross, B., Butler, M., Song, J., Hafeez, D., Morrin, H., Rengasamy, E. R., Thomas, L., Ralovska, S., Smakowski, A., Sundaram, R. D., Hunt, C. K., Lim, M. F., Aniwattanapong, D., Singh, V., Hussain, Z., Chakraborty, S., Burchill, E., Jansen, K., Holling, H., Walton, D., Pollak, T. A., Ellul, M., Koychev, I., Solomon, T., Michael, B. D., Nicholson, T. R., & Rooney, A. G. (2021). Neurology and neuropsychiatry of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the early literature reveals frequent CNS manifestations and key emerging narratives. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 92(9), 932-941. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2021-326405 Show abstract
There is accumulating evidence of the neurological and neuropsychiatric features of infection with SARS-CoV-2. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to describe the characteristics of the early literature and estimate point prevalences for neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 18 July 2020 for randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies and case series. Studies reporting prevalences of neurological or neuropsychiatric symptoms were synthesised into meta-analyses to estimate pooled prevalence.
13 292 records were screened by at least two authors to identify 215 included studies, of which there were 37 cohort studies, 15 case-control studies, 80 cross-sectional studies and 83 case series from 30 countries. 147 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The symptoms with the highest prevalence were anosmia (43.1% (95% CI 35.2% to 51.3%), n=15 975, 63 studies), weakness (40.0% (95% CI 27.9% to 53.5%), n=221, 3 studies), fatigue (37.8% (95% CI 31.6% to 44.4%), n=21 101, 67 studies), dysgeusia (37.2% (95% CI 29.8% to 45.3%), n=13 686, 52 studies), myalgia (25.1% (95% CI 19.8% to 31.3%), n=66 268, 76 studies), depression (23.0% (95% CI 11.8% to 40.2%), n=43 128, 10 studies), headache (20.7% (95% CI 16.1% to 26.1%), n=64 613, 84 studies), anxiety (15.9% (5.6% to 37.7%), n=42 566, 9 studies) and altered mental status (8.2% (95% CI 4.4% to 14.8%), n=49 326, 19 studies). Heterogeneity for most clinical manifestations was high.
Neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 in the pandemic’s early phase are varied and common. The neurological and psychiatric academic communities should develop systems to facilitate high-quality methodologies, including more rapid examination of the longitudinal course of neuropsychiatric complications of newly emerging diseases and their relationship to neuroimaging and inflammatory biomarkers.
This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.
Ito, K. L., Cao, L., Reinberg, R., Keller, B., Monterosso, J., Schweighofer, N., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Validating habitual and goal-directed decision-making performance online in healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 13, 702810. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.702810 Show abstract
Everyday decision-making is supported by a dual-system of control comprised of parallel goal-directed and habitual systems. Over the past decade, the two-stage Markov decision task has become popularized for its ability to dissociate between goal-directed and habitual decision-making. While a handful of studies have implemented decision-making tasks online, only one study has validated the task by comparing in-person and web-based performance on the two-stage task in children and young adults. To date, no study has validated the dissociation of goal-directed and habitual behaviors in older adults online. Here, we implemented and validated a web-based version of the two-stage Markov task using parameter simulation and recovery and compared behavioral results from online and in-person participation on the two-stage task in both young and healthy older adults. We found no differences in estimated free parameters between online and in-person participation on the two-stage task. Further, we replicate previous findings that young adults are more goal-directed than older adults both in-person and online. Overall, this work demonstrates that the implementation and use of the two-stage Markov decision task for remote participation is feasible in the older adult demographic, which would allow for the study of decision-making with larger and more diverse samples.
Baranek, G. T., Frank, G., & Aldrich, R. M. (2021). Meliorism and knowledge mobilization: Strategies for occupational science research and practice. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(2), 274-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1824802 Show abstract
This article proposes that ‘meliorism’—a philosophical belief in people’s abilities to improve lived experience through engaged problem-solving—is a useful concept to describe and orient occupational science research, given the challenges of our time. This proposal derives from an intensive period of discussion through occupational science seminars, strategic planning sessions, and other activities at the University of Southern California’s Mrs. T. H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, including preparations for the 26th Occupational Science Symposium in 2019. While many disciplines and professions express a melioristic intent, we believe that occupational science and occupational therapy exemplify a particular understanding of meliorism, given the view of occupation that they share, as: 1) engaged activity that has meaning and purpose; and 2) a powerful tool that builds consciousness and practices that can promote desired change. We suggest that occupational scientists’ aim to develop impactful research manifests these conceptual foundations. Further, we argue that a commitment to meliorism requires concerted efforts to mobilize knowledge by intentionally planning for stakeholder engagement and societal impact across all phases of research. We suggest that active knowledge mobilization will enhance the knowledge base of occupational science and help to realize its meliorist potential in both research and practice contexts.
Keywords. Occupational science; Knowledge mobilization; Meliorism; History of academic disciplines; Pragmatism
Park, M., Lawlor, M. C., Solomon, O., & Valente, T. W. (2021). Understanding connectivity: The parallax and disruptive-productive effects of mixed methods social network analysis in occupational science. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(2), 287-307. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1812106 Show abstract
This article introduces social network analysis (SNA), a theoretical perspective accompanied by a set of methodologies, to occupational science. The convergence of SNA and occupational science is timely for both fields. By providing methodological approaches that flesh out a structural view of social networks, SNA measurements and mathematical terminology can effectively bridge the complexity of diverse interpretive frameworks used to understand occupational engagement and other constructs for humans as socially occupied beings. By focusing attention on the relationship of occupations to connectivity between agents, occupational science can make significant contributions to the ways in which the mattering or meaning of what people do with others nurtures the development and sustainability of social networks. We provide a brief history and roots of SNA in naturalistic observation, current terminology, and four widely used SNA research designs: egocentric, sociometric, sequenced, and two-mode. Drawing examples from our decade-long journey using SNA with narrative phenomenological conceptual frameworks, we illustrate how we used SNA with experience-near ethnographies to meet different objectives. In the discussion, we reflect on the parallax view created by the synergies between the disciplines and how the disruptive-productive effects that occur with mixing narrative phenomenology and SNA methods could address (mutual) methodological gaps that have seemingly limited conceptual development in the social sciences.
Keywords. Occupational science, Sociality, Intersubjectivity, Connectivity, Social network analysis, Social structure, Network interventions
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Ganz, D. A., Davidson, L., Cole, K. R., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Association of therapy time per day with functional outcomes and rate of recovery in older adults after elective joint replacement surgery. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(5), 881-887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.10.123 Show abstract
Objectives. To explore the association between therapy minutes per length of stay (LOS) day (TMLD), functional outcomes, and rate of functional recovery among older adults after elective hip or knee replacement surgery across postacute (PAC) settings.
Design. Secondary analysis of data collected for an observational cohort study from 2005 to 2010.
Setting. Four inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF) and 7 skilled nursing facilities (SNF).
Participants. Adults aged 65 years or older (N=162) with Medicare fee-for-service insurance and a primary diagnosis of elective hip or knee replacement.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. FIM mobility and self-care measures at discharge.
Results. The TMLD was divided into high, medium, and low categories. Participants were grouped into low, medium, and high gain rate groups based on their average change in mobility and self-care FIM measures per LOS day. Gain rate and TMLD groups were crossmapped to create 9 gain-TMLD groups separately for mobility and self-care. There were no significant differences in admission mobility or self-care measures by gain rate and TMLD trajectory or by facility type (IRF or SNF). TMLD was not significantly associated with discharge mobility measures. Participants in high gain trajectories attained independence with mobility and self-care tasks at discharge regardless of TMLD. Those in low gain trajectories needed supervision or assistance on all mobility tasks. Older age and greater pain at discharge were significantly associated with lower odds of being in the medium or high gain rate groups.
Conclusions. For clinicians and facility managers who must care for patients with constrained resources, the shift to value-based reimbursement for rehabilitation services in PAC settings has reinvigorated the question of whether the duration of therapy provided influences patient outcomes. Three hours of daily therapy after joint replacement surgery may exceed what is necessary for recovery. Postsurgical pain management remains a significant challenge in older adults.
Keywords. Arthroplasty; Geriatrics; Pain management; Rehabilitation
Gandhi, D. B., Kamalakannan, S., Chockalingam, M., Sebastian, I. A., Urimubenshi, G., Alim, M., Khatter, H., Chakraborty, S., & Solomon, J. M. (2021). Expert consensus for in-hospital neurorehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries. Wellcome Open Research, 6, 130. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16715.1 Show abstract
Background. People with neurological dysfunction have been significantly affected by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis in receiving adequate and quality rehabilitation services. There are no clear guidelines or recommendations for rehabilitation providers in dealing with patients with neurological dysfunction during a pandemic situation especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper was to develop consensus-based expert recommendations for in-hospital based neurorehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic for low- and middle-income countries based on available evidence.
Methods. A group of experts in neurorehabilitation consisting of neurologists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists were identified for the consensus groups. A scoping review was conducted to identify existing evidence and recommendations for neurorehabilitation during COVID-19. Specific statements with level 2b evidence from studies identified were developed. These statements were circulated to 13 experts for consensus. The statements that received ≥80% agreement were grouped in different themes and the recommendations were developed.
Results. 75 statements for expert consensus were generated. 72 statements received consensus from 13 experts. These statements were thematically grouped as recommendations for neurorehabilitation service providers, patients, formal and informal caregivers of affected individuals, rehabilitation service organizations, and administrators.
Conclusions. The development of this consensus statement is of fundamental significance to neurological rehabilitation service providers and people living with neurological disabilities. It is crucial that governments, health systems, clinicians and stakeholders involved in upholding the standard of neurorehabilitation practice in low- and middle-income countries consider conversion of the consensus statement to minimum standard requirements within the context of the pandemic as well as for the future.
Keywords. COVID-19, Pandemic, Neurorehabilitation, Guidelines, Consensus, Health Systems
Heiny, E., Wolf, S., Collins, M., Kellner, P. D., & Pineda, R. (2021). Factors related to enrollment in early therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Acta Paediatrica, 110(5), 1468-1474. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15700 Show abstract
Aim. Early therapy can improve developmental outcomes for preterm infants. However, preterm infants who are referred have low enrollment in early therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. This manuscript aims to investigate the relationship between infant medical and sociodemographic factors and enrollment in early therapy services post‐NICU discharge, when system‐related barriers to access are minimized.
Methods. This was a retrospective investigation of 89 families with infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Families were approached for enrollment into early therapy services following NICU discharge through Baby Bridge programming, which aims to improve access to therapy services following NICU discharge.
Results. Seventy‐three (82%) families enrolled in early therapy services, and 16 (18%) families declined. Parents were more likely to enroll in early therapy if they had public insurance (p=0.01), a maternal psychiatric diagnosis (p=0.02), or additional children under 18 years in the home (p=0.01). No infant medical factors were related to enrollment.
Conclusion. Although enrollment rates were high, 18% of families refused therapy services, despite removing system‐related barriers to access. Targeted interventions can be developed to increase enrollment in early therapy services among populations who are most likely to refuse therapy services after NICU discharge.
Keywords. Baby Bridge program; birth to three; development; early intervention; preterm infant
Williams, K. L., Campi, E., & Baranek, G. T. (2021). Associations among sensory hyperresponsiveness, restricted and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety in autism: An integrated systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 83, 101763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101763 Show abstract
Background. Autistic individuals exhibit core and co-occurring features that can be disabling to daily functioning and impede quality of life. The combined expression of three closely related features: sensory hyperresponsiveness, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety, may be a sign to practitioners that experiences in the environment are particularly challenging. These are investigated through many approaches, including animal modelling, neurological or physiological measures, behavioral observation, and first-hand accounts. However, little work has been done to review evidence across approaches to better understand their expression.
Method. This study was an integrated systematic review to identify factors that contribute to the collective expression of three constructs of interests (COIs; hyperresponsiveness, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety). Twenty-two articles were analyzed for both structural and thematic patterns. This review is unique in its inclusion of articles from a variety of disciplines and grouping of studies based on similarities over methodological techniques (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods).
Results. Three overall structural approaches relating the constructs of interest were identified (parallel, relational, and contingent). Three overarching themes also emerged: 1) the broader social context, 2) predictability of environmental factors, and 3) overlap with cognitive and behavioral coping strategies.
Conclusions. Results highlight clinically relevant information about the combined expression of the three COIs and demonstrate possibilities for increased collaboration across disciplines through common themes and study structures to further understand the experiences of autistic people.
Aryal, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G. M., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Intelligent agents to improve thermal satisfaction by controlling personal comfort systems under different levels of automation. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(8), 7089-7100. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.3038378 Show abstract
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 43% of building energy consumption, yet only 38% of commercial building occupants are satisfied with the thermal environment. The primary reasons for low occupant satisfaction are that HVAC operations do not integrate occupant comfort requirements nor control the thermal environment at the individual level. Personal comfort systems (PCS) enable local control of the thermal environment around each occupant. However, full manual control of PCS can be inefficient, and fully automated PCS reduces an occupant’s perceived control over the environment, which can then lead to lower satisfaction. A better solution might lie somewhere between fully manual and fully automated environmental control. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of an internet of things (IoT) based intelligent agent that learns individual occupant comfort requirements and controls the thermal environment using PCS (i.e., a local fan and a heater). We tested different levels of automation where control is shared between an intelligent agent and the end user. Our results show that PCS use improves occupant satisfaction and including some level of automation can improve occupant satisfaction further than what is possible with manually operated PCS. Among the levels of automation investigated, Inquisitive Automation, where the user approves/declines the control actions of the intelligent agent before execution, led to highest occupant satisfaction with the thermal environment.
Keywords. building automation, thermal comfort, smart systems, smart buildings, indoor environments
Floríndez, L. I., Floríndez, D. C., Price, M. E., Floríndez, F. M., Como, D. H., Polido, J. C., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Pyatak, E., & Cermak, S. A. (2021). Exploring eating challenges and food selectivity for Latinx children with and without autism spectrum disorder using qualitative visual methodology: Implications for oral health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3751. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073751 Show abstract
Diet and food choices significantly impact teeth, including enamel quality and development of dental caries. However, studies focusing on diet and its relation to oral care in Latinx children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been minimally addressed in research. This qualitative study used an inclusive visual methodology to explore what Latinx caregivers learned about their child’s diet preferences and food routines in relation to their oral health. As a secondary aim, the study sought to explore whether notable differences in diet emerged between Latinx children with and without ASD. Participants were 32 Latinx caregivers from 18 families with children with and without Autism (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with ASD) who completed a food journal activity and photo elicitation interview. Interviews were thematically coded for themes pertaining to parents’ perceptions of their child’s diet and oral health. Findings of this study indicate that the process of taking photos helped Latinx caregivers to better situate the barriers and behaviors influencing everyday food routines in their children within the context of relating to their overall oral health. Via their active participation in the research process, parents were empowered to note strategies they could employ that would directly impact their child’s oral health outcomes, such as reducing juice intake and monitoring sugar consumption. Therefore, visual research methodologies are an important strategy for researchers to consider in order to empower participants to be part of the research process and part of the outcomes, and to offer better understanding of the lived experience of populations underrepresented in the literature, such as Latinx children with and without ASD and their families.
Keywords. Autism Spectrum Disorder; children; families; health disparities; Latinxs; nutrition; oral care; photo elicitation; qualitative
Kilroy, E., Harrison, L., Butera, C., Jayashankar, A., Cermak, S., Kaplan, J., Williams, M., Haranin, E., Bookheimer, S., Dapretto, M., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2021). Unique deficit in embodied simulation in autism: An fMRI study comparing autism and developmental coordination disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 42(5), 1532-1546. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25312 Show abstract
A deficit in pre‐cognitively mirroring other people's actions and experiences may be related to the social impairments observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear whether such embodied simulation deficits are unique to ASD or instead are related to motor impairment, which is commonly comorbid with ASD. Here we aim to disentangle how, neurologically, motor impairments contribute to simulation deficits and identify unique neural signatures of ASD. We compare children with ASD (N = 30) to children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; N = 23) as well as a typically developing group (N = 33) during fMRI tasks in which children observe, imitate, and mentalize about other people's actions. Results indicate a unique neural signature in ASD: during action observation, only the ASD group shows hypoactivity in a region important for simulation (inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis, IFGop). However, during a motor production task (imitation), the IFGop is hypoactive for both ASD and DCD groups. For all tasks, we find correlations across groups with motor ability, even after controlling for age, IQ, and social impairment. Conversely, across groups, mentalizing ability is correlated with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex when controlling for motor ability. These findings help identify the unique neurobiological basis of ASD for aspects of social processing. Furthermore, as no previous fMRI studies correlated brain activity with motor impairment in ASD, these findings help explain prior conflicting reports in these simulation networks.
Meether, M., Bush, C. N., Richter, M., & Pineda, R. (2021). Neurobehavior of very preterm infants at term equivalent age is related to early childhood outcomes. Acta Paediatrica, 110(4), 1181-1188. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15595 Show abstract
Aim. To describe neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood among infants born very preterm and define the relationships between neurobehavior of very preterm infants and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years.
Methods. Forty‐eight infants born ≤32 weeks gestation had neurobehavior assessed at term equivalent age using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Outcomes at 4 years were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ‐3), the Sensory Profile – Short Form (SF), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool version (BRIEF‐P).
Results. At 4 years, 23 (48%) children had at least one below average score on the ASQ‐3, 15 (31%) had a below average total score on the Sensory Profile‐SF, and 3 (6%) had an abnormal total score on the BRIEF‐P. Children with lower fine motor scores at 4 years had poorer orientation (p=.03) and self‐regulation (p=.03), hypertonia (p=.01), and more sub‐optimal reflexes (p=.02) as neonates. Children with lower gross motor scores at 4 years of age had more sub-optimal reflexes (p=.03) and lethargy (p=.046) as neonates. Children with tactile sensitivity at 4 years of age had poorer orientation (p=.01) and tolerance of handling (p=.03) as neonates. Children with decreased responsiveness at 4 years of age had low arousal (p=.02) as neonates, and those with poor auditory filtering at age 4 years had hypotonia (p=.03) as neonates.
Conclusion. Early neurobehavior is related to neurodevelopmental outcome in early childhood.
Asaba, E., Aldrich, R. M., Gabrielsson, H., Ekstam, L., & Farias, L. (2021). Challenging conceptualisations of work: Revisiting contemporary experiences of return to work and unemployment. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(1), 81-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1820896 Show abstract
This article draws on empirically derived illustrations of return to work and unemployment to critically explore how a narrow understanding of work pervades contemporary social policies and programmes. This is particularly relevant in economic and labour market transitions aligned with neoliberalism that individualise the social problem of unemployment and thus restrict occupational possibilities related to work. An overview of how work and related concepts have been conceptualised in occupational science scholarship is presented. After describing the theoretical orientation of the paper, three illustrations derived from a secondary analysis of data from projects conducted in Sweden and the United States are presented. The three empirically grounded illustrations are integrated with theory to highlight tensions between the politically informed structures that shape social policies and programmes and the individual experiences of work, unemployment, and return to work that users and providers of these programmes communicate. By asserting that success in work-related placement programmes is not synonymous with meaningful employment, we attempt to heighten awareness of the potential risks associated with a reliance on measuring work by merely being in paid formal employment.
Keywords. Critical occupational science; Labour market; Return to work; Unemployment
Patil, U., Kostareva, U., Hadley, M., Manganello, J. A., Okan, O., Dadaczynski, K., Massey, P. M., Agner, J., & Sentell, T. (2021). Health literacy, digital health literacy, and COVID-19 pandemic attitudes and behaviors in U.S. college students: Implications for interventions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6), 3301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063301 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by rapidly emerging evidence, changing guidance, and misinformation, which present new challenges for health literacy (HL) and digital health literacy (DHL) skills. This study explored whether COVID-19-related information access, attitudes, and behaviors were associated with health literacy and digital health literacy among college students in the United States. Self-reported measures of health literacy, along with items on pandemic-related attitudes, behaviors, information sources, and social networks, were collected online using a managed research panel. In July 2020, 256 responses were collected, which mirrored the racial/ethnic and gender diversity of U.S. colleges. Only 49% reported adequate HL, and 57% found DHL tasks easy overall. DHL did not vary by HL level. In multivariable models, both HL and DHL were independently associated with overall compliance with basic preventive practices. Higher DHL, but not HL, was significantly associated with greater willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine and the belief that acquiring the disease would negatively impact their life. On average, respondents discussed health with 4–5 people, which did not vary by HL or DHL measures. The usage of online information sources varied by HL and DHL. The study findings can inform future student-focused interventions, including identifying the distinct roles of HL and DHL in pandemic information access, attitudes, and behaviors.
Keywords. COVID-19; coronavirus; health literacy; digital health literacy; eHealth literacy; college student; online survey; social network
Pineda, R., Roussin, J., Kwon, J., Heiny, E., Colditz, G., & Smith, J. (2021). Applying the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the implementation of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program. BMC Pediatrics, 21, 137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02594-3 Show abstract
Background. To maximize the benefit of parent-directed, positive sensory exposures in the NICU, a structured sensory-based program titled the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program was developed that includes specific doses and targeted timing of evidence-based sensory exposures.
Methods. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to systematically evaluate the SENSE program as an implementation strategy. One-hundred preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestation were studied (61 receiving the SENSE program and 39 standard-of-care). Parent education time and infant sensory exposures were tracked, and parents completed a questionnaire that probed their perceptions about the SENSE program.
Results. One-hundered thirty-one families were recruited, and 100 (76%) enrolled. The SENSE program was initiated at an average postmenstrual age of 29.8 (±2.4) weeks; 4.9 (±5.6) days after birth. The average number of education sessions with families was 4.8 (±3.7) amounting to 72.3 (±37.4) total minutes over hospitalization. The total time of logged tactile and auditory exposures among SENSE recipients over the length of hospitalization was a median (IQ range) of 9325 (5295-15,694) minutes over an average of 10.1 (±7.6) weeks of hospitalization. There were differences in the proportion of tactile and auditory exposure targets received by the infant among those receiving the SENSE program compared to standard-of-care (91% compared to 48%; p < 0.0001). Ninety-five percent of infants tolerated the SENSE program as defined, with 5% of infants requiring intermittent adaptations or the interventions being stopped for a period that typically lasted 1–2 weeks. Earlier parent education was related to more parent participation in SENSE program interventions (p = 0.04). Eighty-five percent of participants receiving the SENSE program had most of the sensory interventions completed by parents, as opposed to the medical or sensory support team. Seventy-two percent of infants had at least 100% of the auditory and tactile doses conducted over the length of stay. Parents reported acceptability.
Conclusion. The SENSE program had good reach, was effective and acceptable with minimal cost, was adopted, and had good fidelity. Insights from implementation of the SENSE program (within a research study) informed future strategies to aid maintenance during dissemination.
Liu, Y., Zemke, R., Liang, L., & McLaughlin Gray, J. (2021). Occupational harmony: Embracing the complexity of occupational balance. Journal of Occupational Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2021.1881592 Show abstract
Occupational balance is a central concept in occupational science, but it is complex and lacks an agreed-upon definition. Further, the concept has not been given significant attention by scholars outside Western societies. Building upon traditional Chinese culture and Chinese scholars’ Human Complex System Theory, this article presents a proposed Model of Occupational Harmony, offering an Eastern understanding of how the orchestration of everyday occupations relates to health and well-being. The notion of occupational harmony highlights harmonious human-environment transactions as the essence of the phenomenon and integrates multiple perspectives in previous occupational balance literature, including activity patterns, time use, occupational characteristics, need satisfaction, and biological rhythms. It is asserted that occupational harmony can be characterized as complex equilibria among three pairs of two-sided occupational characteristics and achieved via harmony among five dimensions of occupational engagement and coherence across multiple levels of human-environment transactions. This article is a beginning theoretical conceptualization of occupational harmony, allowing occupational scientists to embrace the complexity of the orchestration of occupational engagement.
Keywords. Occupational science, Occupational balance, Culture, Occupational engagement, Systems theory
Nagamori, A., Laine, C. M., Loeb, G. E., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2021). Force variability is mostly not motor noise: Theoretical implications for motor control. PLoS Computational Biology, 17(3), e1008707. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008707 Show abstract
Variability in muscle force is a hallmark of healthy and pathological human behavior. Predominant theories of sensorimotor control assume ‘motor noise’ leads to force variability and its ‘signal dependence’ (variability in muscle force whose amplitude increases with intensity of neural drive). Here, we demonstrate that the two proposed mechanisms for motor noise (i.e. the stochastic nature of motor unit discharge and unfused tetanic contraction) cannot account for the majority of force variability nor for its signal dependence. We do so by considering three previously underappreciated but physiologically important features of a population of motor units: 1) fusion of motor unit twitches, 2) coupling among motoneuron discharge rate, cross-bridge dynamics, and muscle mechanics, and 3) a series-elastic element to account for the aponeurosis and tendon. These results argue strongly against the idea that force variability and the resulting kinematic variability are generated primarily by ‘motor noise.’ Rather, they underscore the importance of variability arising from properties of control strategies embodied through distributed sensorimotor systems. As such, our study provides a critical path toward developing theories and models of sensorimotor control that provide a physiologically valid and clinically useful understanding of healthy and pathologic force variability.
Marin-Pardo, O., Phanord, C., Donnelly, M. R., Laine, C. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Development of a low-cost, modular muscle–computer interface for at-home telerehabilitation for chronic stroke. Sensors, 21(5), 1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051806 Show abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Recent studies have shown that high doses of repeated task-specific practice can be effective at improving upper-limb function at the chronic stage. Providing at-home telerehabilitation services with therapist supervision may allow higher dose interventions targeted to this population. Additionally, muscle biofeedback to train patients to avoid unwanted simultaneous activation of antagonist muscles (co-contractions) may be incorporated into telerehabilitation technologies to improve motor control. Here, we present the development and feasibility of a low-cost, portable, telerehabilitation biofeedback system called Tele-REINVENT. We describe our modular electromyography acquisition, processing, and feedback algorithms to train differentiated muscle control during at-home therapist-guided sessions. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of low-cost sensors for our training task with two healthy individuals. Finally, we present the results of a case study with a stroke survivor who used the system for 40 sessions over 10 weeks of training. In line with our previous research, our results suggest that using low-cost sensors provides similar results to those using research-grade sensors for low forces during an isometric task. Our preliminary case study data with one patient with stroke also suggest that our system is feasible, safe, and enjoyable to use during 10 weeks of biofeedback training, and that improvements in differentiated muscle activity during volitional movement attempt may be induced during a 10-week period. Our data provide support for using low-cost technology for individuated muscle training to reduce unintended coactivation during supervised and unsupervised home-based telerehabilitation for clinical populations, and suggest this approach is safe and feasible. Future work with larger study populations may expand on the development of meaningful and personalized chronic stroke rehabilitation.
Keywords. biofeedback; stroke; telerehabilitation; electromyography; human-computer interface
Margetis, J. L., Wilcox, J., Thompson, C., & Mannion, N. (2021). Occupational therapy: Essential to critical care rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75, 7502170010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.048827 Show abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic reshaped the health care landscape, leading to the reassignment of essential health care workers to critical areas and widespread furloughs of providers deemed nonessential, including occupational therapy practitioners. Although multidisciplinary critical care teams often include occupational therapy practitioners, efforts to define, measure, and disseminate occupational therapy’s unique contributions to critical care outcomes have been overlooked. This editorial provides recommendations to improve the occupational therapy profession’s readiness to meet society’s current and future pandemic needs. We propose a three-pronged strategy to strengthen occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and advocacy to illuminate the distinct value of occupational therapy in critical care.
Xiao, Y., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Impacts of working from home during COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental well-being of office workstation users. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(3), 181-190. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002097 Show abstract
Objective. To understand impacts of social, behavioral and physical factors on well-being of office workstation users during COVID-19 work from home (WFH).
Methods. A questionnaire was deployed from April 24 to June 11, 2020 and 988 responses were valid. Linear regression, multinomial logistic regression and chi-square tests were used to understand factors associated with overall physical and mental health statuses and number of new physical and mental health issues.
Results. Decreased overall physical and mental well-being after WFH were associated with physical exercise, food intake, communication with coworkers, children at home, distractions while working, adjusted work hours, workstation set-up and satisfaction with workspace indoor environmental factors.
Conclusion. This study highlights factors that impact workers’ physical and mental health well-being while WFH and provides a foundation for considering how to best support a positive WFH experience.
Keywords. COVID-19 pandemic, home office, mental well-being, physical well-being, work from home
Fukumura, Y. E., McLaughlin Gray, J., Lucas, G. M., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Worker perspectives on incorporating artificial intelligence into office workspaces: Implications for the future of office work. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 1(4), 1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041690 Show abstract
Workplace environments have a significant impact on worker performance, health, and well-being. With machine learning capabilities, artificial intelligence (AI) can be developed to automate individualized adjustments to work environments (e.g., lighting, temperature) and to facilitate healthier worker behaviors (e.g., posture). Worker perspectives on incorporating AI into office workspaces are largely unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore office workers’ views on including AI in their office workspace. Six focus group interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Interview questions were designed to generate discussion on benefits, challenges, and pragmatic considerations for incorporating AI into office settings. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Two primary constructs emerged. First, participants shared perspectives related to preferences and concerns regarding communication and interactions with the technology. Second, numerous conversations highlighted the dualistic nature of a system that collects large amounts of data; that is, the potential benefits for behavior change to improve health and the pitfalls of trust and privacy. Across both constructs, there was an overarching discussion related to the intersections of AI with the complexity of work performance. Numerous thoughts were shared relative to future AI solutions that could enhance the office workplace. This study’s findings indicate that the acceptability of AI in the workplace is complex and dependent upon the benefits outweighing the potential detriments. Office worker needs are complex and diverse, and AI systems should aim to accommodate individual needs.
Keywords. workspace; office work; computer workstations; artificial intelligence
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Davidson, L. F., Khromouchkine, N., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Association of therapy time and cognitive recovery in stroke patients in post-acute rehabilitation. JAMDA, 22(2), 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.031 Show abstract
Objectives. Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent after stroke, with 77% of people having impairment in at least 2 cognitive domains. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between therapy minutes per length of stay (LOS) day and cognitive recovery in patients receiving rehabilitation services in inpatient post-acute care facilities following a stroke.
Design. Secondary analyses of data collected in inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities from 2005 to 2010 for an observational cohort study.
Setting and Participants. Participants were adults aged ≥65 years with Medicare insurance and primary diagnosis of stroke (N = 100). Participants who met criteria for dementia (n = 5) were excluded from analyses. We calculated therapy minutes per LOS day for occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, and all therapies combined; therapy times were dichotomized into high or low minutes per LOS day (MLD). We used an ordinary least squares regression model for cognitive outcome at discharge to control for cognitive status at admission, therapy intensity by discipline, and LOS.
Results. At baseline, participants were classified as having severe (n = 11), moderate (n = 39), or mild (n = 45) cognitive impairment. Impairment groups were not significantly different on any demographic variables. The adjusted regression model showed that high occupational therapy MLD (>50 minutes per LOS day) (P = .028) was significantly associated with cognitive measure at discharge compared with low occupational therapy MLD when controlling for cognitive impairment group at baseline (P < .001). Neither high physical therapy MLD nor speech-language pathology MLD was significantly associated with cognitive outcome relative to their respective low TMLD groups.
Conclusions and Implications. Our results show that higher-intensity occupational therapy services were associated with better cognitive outcome at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. Findings also suggest that volume of therapy alone does not necessarily produce optimal outcomes. Both amount and type of therapy should be tailored to meet the needs of individual patients.
Keywords. Rehabilitation; cognition; cognitive dysfunction; stroke; occupational therapy; post-acute care
Agner, J. (2021). An examination of community psychology values and their application to community-based participatory research. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 12(1), 1-10. Full text Show abstract
Conventional research involves participants primarily as sources of data (Wallerstein & Duran, 2006), relies upon a positivist tradition wherein researchers are seen as neutral, objective observers (Bhawuk, 2008), and is not necessarily concerned with the application of findings to improve the social conditions of those involved. In many places around the world, this has led to distrusting relationships between communities and researchers, and has also likely limited the potential for research to help ameliorate social problems (Smith, 1999). In this article, action research is presented as an alternative to conventional research practices, and is examined in relation to four community psychology values. A brief history and the main principles of action research are described, followed by a discussion of its evolution to participatory, or community-based participatory research (CBPR), and connection to four values identified by Bond (2016). These include: 1) empowerment, 2) promotion of social justice, equity and social change, 3) attention to diversity in its various forms, and 4) adoption of an ecological perspective and multilevel analyses. Each value is discussed in terms of theoretical alignment as well as challenges and successes in application to research and practice. This work deepens the rationale for the use of action research in community psychology, and may be used as a lens to evaluate practice and research.
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Vigen, C. L., Martínez, J., Blanchard, J., & Carlson, M. (2021). Long-term follow-up of a lifestyle intervention for late-midlife, rural-dwelling Latinos in primary care. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75, 7502205020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.042861 Show abstract
Importance. Rural-dwelling Latinos are an underresourced population in need of accessible and effective wellness programs.
Objective. To evaluate patients’ long-term health-related outcomes after lifestyle intervention.
Design. An uncontrolled pilot trial assessing change in health from pretreatment to long-term follow-up (12 mo after intervention completion, no contact) and from posttreatment to long-term follow-up.
Setting. Rural, community-based primary care.
Participants. Latino and Hispanic safety-net primary care patients, ages 50 to 64 yr.
Intervention. A culturally tailored, 4-mo lifestyle intervention co-led by occupational therapy practitioners and Latino community health workers that features telehealth and in-home sessions covering topics such as healthy eating and navigating health care.
Outcomes and Measures. Self-reported and physiological outcomes: symptom–well-being (primary), stress, sleep disturbance, social satisfaction, physical activity, patient activation, blood pressure, and weight. Exit interviews addressed health experiences and intervention impact on participants’ lives.
Results. Participants (N = 27) demonstrated clinically significant pretreatment to long-term follow-up benefits in all symptom–well-being dimensions (Cohen’s d ≥ 0.8, p ≤ .004), with additional gains from posttreatment to long-term follow-up (d ≥ 0.4, p ≤ .05). Significant improvements from pre- to posttreatment in systolic blood pressure, stress, and social role and activity satisfaction were maintained at long-term follow-up. No changes were observed in weight, physical activity, or diastolic blood pressure. Participants described the intervention’s sustained positive effect on their wellness.
Conclusions and Relevance. A lifestyle intervention led by occupational therapy practitioners and community health workers in a primary care context has potential to achieve long-term health benefits in rural-dwelling, late-midlife Latinos.
What This Article Adds. This study reveals that rural, late-midlife Latinos showed long-lasting improvements in psychological and physical health after finishing a program that helped them make healthy lifestyle choices. This finding supports the unique contribution of occupational therapy in primary care settings.
Stein Duker, L. I., Schmidt, A. R., Pham, P. K., Ringold, S. M., & Nager, A. L. (2021). Use of audiobooks as an environmental distractor to decrease state anxiety in children waiting in the pediatric emergency department: A pilot and feasibility study. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 8, 556805. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.556805 Show abstract
Objectives. Anxiety and anticipatory stressors are commonly experienced by children visiting the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), but little research exists that addresses the efficacy of interventions to decrease this stress. This one-sample pretest-postest pilot study gathered preliminary data on the feasibility and effectiveness of utilizing audiobooks to reduce fear and state anxiety in children in the PED.
Methods. Participants were 131 children in kindergarten through 8th grade (M = 9.4 years, 54% female), triaged urgent or emergent, presenting to the PED. Participants self-reported fear (Children's Fear Scale) and state anxiety (modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children; mSTAIC) before and after listening to an age-appropriate audiobook (two options). Data regarding patient experience were also collected. Paired samples t-test was used to examine pre–post intervention changes in fear and state anxiety.
Results. Significant, albeit small, improvements in fear and the mSTAIC states of nervous, calm, happy, and relaxed were found after use of the audiobook (Cohen's dz = 0.22–0.35). Small, yet significant correlations were found between child age/grade level and improvements in fear and in the mSTAIC states of scared and relaxed, suggesting that the audiobook was more beneficial for older participants. Over 60% of participants liked the audiobook content “a lot” as well as enjoyed listening to the audiobook “a lot.” Without prompting, 15% of participants requested to listen to an additional audiobook.
Conclusions. Listening to an audiobook is feasible and could be effective in decreasing fear and state anxiety for children during a waiting period in the PED. The technology is low-cost, simple, and portable. The results of this study should be interpreted with prudence due to the lack of a control group and results that, although significant, were modest based on effect size conventions; future studies should explore the impact of audiobooks on patient stress with an expanded sample size and control group.
Keywords. distraction, environment, pediatrics, audiobook, fear, state anxiety, emergency department (ED)
Murphy, S. L., Krause, D., Roll, S. C., Gandikota, G., Barber, M., & Khanna, D. (2021). Development of a musculoskeletal ultrasound protocol to examine upper extremity rehabilitation outcomes in systemic sclerosis. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 37(1), 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479320965210 Show abstract
Objectives. This study developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) protocol to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes in systemic sclerosis.
Materials and Methods. Three MSUS methods (gray-scale, Doppler, strain elastography) and two acquisition techniques (long- vs short-axis; transducer on skin vs floating on gel) were examined in the forearm before and after rehabilitation treatment. For gray-scale, tissue thickness measures and intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]), and paired t tests examined differences among techniques.
Results. Five people with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis participated. The most valid and reliable gray-scale technique was with the transducer in long-axis, floating on gel. Doppler and strain elastography did not detect changes. Both dermal and subcutaneous thickness measurement error was small; intrarater and interrater reliability was good to excellent. Preliminary data indicate that treatment may lead to dermal thinning.
Conclusion. A replicable protocol was established and may be an adjunct to rehabilitation outcome measurement in systemic sclerosis.
Keywords. musculoskeletal ultrasound, scleroderma, rehabilitation, protocol
Weaver, J. A., Cogan, A. M., Davidson, L., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Combining items from 3 federally mandated assessments using Rasch measurement to reliably measure cognition across postacute care settings. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(1), 106-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.07.003 Show abstract
Objective. To combine items from the Functional Independence Measure, Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0, and the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS)-B to reliably measure cognition across postacute care settings and facilitate future studies of patient cognitive recovery.
Design. Rasch analysis of data from a prospective, observational cohort study.
Setting. Postacute care inclusive of inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and home health agencies.
Participants. Patients (N=147) receiving rehabilitation services.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. Functional Independence Measure, MDS 2.0, and the OASIS-B.
Results. Six cognition items demonstrated good construct validity with no misfitting items, unidimensionality, good precision (person separation reliability, 0.95), and an item hierarchy that reflected a clinically meaningful continuum of cognitive challenge.
Conclusions. This is the first attempt to combine the cognition items from the 3 historically, federally mandated assessments to create a common metric for cognition. These 6 items could be adopted as standardized patient assessment data elements to improve cognitive assessment across postacute care settings.
Keywords. Cognition; Outcome measures; Rehabilitation; Stroke; Subacute care
Holland, C. M., Blanche, E. I., & Thompson, B. L. (2021). Quantifying therapists’ activities during sensory integration treatment for young children with autism. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics, 41(3), 284-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/01942638.2020.1847235 Show abstract
Aims. There is limited research on the type and quantity of actions (activities) occupational therapy practitioners utilize when providing sensory integration treatment to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
Methods. A coding scheme identifying specific aspects of sensory integration treatment was developed and used to analyze 34 videos of 9 children with ASD, aged between 18 and 56 months, treated by 8 occupational therapists. Occupational therapists providing sensory integration treatment to children with ASD were behaviorally coded and rated using Observer XT, a software package designed for analysis of behavioral processes.
Results. Verbal communications, including offers, positive commands, and feedback, to facilitate engagement were the most frequent actions enacted by therapists. Proprioceptive activities were the most frequent sensory opportunities presented. Therapists received high ratings for sensitivity qualities.
Conclusions. The number of sensory opportunities and interactions the therapists provided suggest concordance with sensory integration treatment components in the clinical setting. General impression ratings indicate engagement between child and therapist may be an important aspect of sensory integration treatment for young children with ASD. Quantification of therapists’ actions can provide insight into the moment-to-moment decision-making and relationships between therapist and child during daily practice of sensory integration treatment.
Yeager, J., & Rennie, M. (2021). Student veterans’ experiences of a campus veterans center revealed through Photovoice. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 69(1), 46-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2020.1813483 Show abstract
This phenomenological qualitative study employed Photovoice to investigate the experiences of college student service members and veterans (SSM/V) in relation to the transition from the military to higher education. Twelve participants took three photographs per day for seven days that reflected their everyday experiences as SSM/V. Individual interviews and focus groups engaged participants in a discussion of the meaning of the experiences represented in the photographs. Thematic analysis revealed that SSM/V experienced social disconnection upon returning from military service, that they viewed the campus military and veterans center (MVC) as a supportive environment, that newly assumed roles in the context of the MVC provided a new sense of identity and meaning, and that social connections with other veterans provided a key source of support. A campus MVC may serve as a valued campus resource for the development of new social networks and roles that support the successful transition for SSM/V.
Keywords. Photovoice, student service members and veterans, transition, well-being
Como, D. H., Stein Duker, L. I., Polido, J. C., & Cermak, S. A. (2021). Oral health and autism spectrum disorders: A unique collaboration between dentistry and occupational therapy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010135 Show abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at risk for oral health disparities. With the dramatic rise in ASD prevalence to 1 in 54 children, it is likely that an increasing number of dental practitioners will encounter or be asked to treat children with ASD. This paper reviews explanations related to the increasing prevalence of ASD, provides reasons why children with ASD are at increased risk for poor oral health, and discusses unique interprofessional collaborations between dental practitioners and occupational therapists. Occupational therapists and dentists can work together to plan modifications to the dental environment or adapt dental protocols to reduce some of the barriers encountered by those with ASD, provide desensitization strategies before the clinic visit, or help a child with emotional regulation during clinical treatments.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder; dentistry; interprofessional collaboration; occupational therapy; oral health
Yue, J. W., Delavar, M., Padini, B., Vanstrum, E., Milman, T., & Sideris, J. (2021). The value of occupational therapy student participation in university-based student-run free clinics in the United States. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 5(4), 13. https://doi.org/10.26681/jote.2021.050413 Show abstract
While student-run free clinic (SRFC) participation is well-documented among many health professions, no study has comprehensively characterized occupational therapy student participation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand both the current presence as well as educational impact of occupational therapy student participation in university-based SRFCs in the United States (U.S). Data collection occurred through a national survey and semi-structured interviews. Surveys were sent to representatives (e.g. program directors, faculty advisors, and student leaders) at all 190 accredited occupational therapy schools. Of these, 118 responded, for an overall response rate of 62.1%. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of physician’s assistant, medical, pharmacy, and occupational therapy students (N=9). Results showed that 12.7% of schools contributed volunteers to at least one SRFC (N=15). Themes included that occupational therapy students provided a unique perspective to the interprofessional team, educated other students about occupational therapy’s scope, and demonstrated strong patient interviewing skills. They also learned from opportunities to explore future career possibilities, engage in interdisciplinary teamwork, and practice skills in a safe space. Occupational therapy programs have a relatively low rate of participation (12.7%) in SRFCs compared to other health professions nationally. However, occupational therapy and other health professional students report that occupational therapy student participation creates important educational opportunities. These opportunities may strengthen occupational therapy’s role in interprofessional team-based care, especially within the emerging practice area of primary care.
Non–communicable diseases (NCDs) is an umbrella term used to describe a cluster of diseases constituting of Cardiovascular and Chronic Respiratory complications, Cancer, Diabetes and Mental Health conditions. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that nearly 71% of all deaths worldwide (41 million people) can be attributed to inadequate and untimely intervention for Non–communicable diseases. Out of the 41 million people affected, the most vulnerable groups placed at the epicentre to face the repercussions of the growing impacts of NCDs are children, young people, people of lower socio-economic status (SES) and those belonging to lower and lower-middle income countries (LMICs). We call for policies to be more youth-inclusive and suggest further recommendations to incorporate youth voices and interventions to combat the global burden of NCDs as young people constitute of a major demographic widely affected by NCDs yet remain underrepresented in their say on tackling NCDs across local, regional, national and global levels.