Recent Chan Publications
Consistent with the Division's ongoing pursuit of innovation and production of knowledge, Chan faculty, staff, and PhD students work at the cutting-edge of their respective fields of expertise. In addition to doing funded research, members of the Chan division generate written publications which contribute to the scholarship of their fields. Peer-reviewed publications authored or co-authored by Chan faculty, staff and PhD students from the last three years are listed below using the American Psychological Association's citation style.
Blanche, E. I., Giuffrida, C., Hallway, M., Edwards, B., & Test, L. A. (Eds.) (2022). An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810
Surfas, S., & Edwards, B. (2022). Incorporating sensory integration approaches in pediatric mental health. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 182-196). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-13
Bodison, S. C., & Surfus, J. (2022). Mealtime participation: Feeding and eating issues in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 210-225). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-15
Magaña, S., Gunter, J. S., & Blanche, E. I. (2022). Community programs — Program 2: Therapy West Integrated Specialized Play Program (TWISPP). In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 261-267). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Nakasuji, B. (2022). Community programs — Program 1: Steppin’ Up transition group program for high school students with developmental disabilities in high-risk areas. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 255-260). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Kingsley, K. L. (2022). LGBTQ and gender expansive children and youth. In L. C. Grajo & A. K. Boisselle (Eds.), Adaptation, coping, and resilience in children and youth: A comprehensive occupational therapy approach (pp. 289-312). Slack Incorporated. Full text
Kingsley, K. L. (2022). Community programs — Program 3: The Moving to Make Friends© program. In E. I. Blanche, C. Giuffrida, M. Hallway, B. Edwards, & L. A. Test (Eds.), An evidence-based guide to combining interventions with sensory integration in pediatric practice (pp. 268-273). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003050810-18
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Lee, E., Saunders, R., Wagas, R., & Wu, S. (2022). Technology for activity participation in older people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: expert perspectives and a scoping review. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2022.2116114 Show abstract
Purpose. This two-phased study aimed to collate, summarize and characterize – through the lens of an occupation-based, person-centred framework – ongoing research and practice featuring activity participation-supportive digital health technology (DHT) for direct use by older persons with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (PwMCI/ADRD).
Materials and methods. Phase 1: Using scoping review procedures, PubMed, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched to identify primary research studies. Phase 2: Semi-structured interviews were completed with MCI/ADRD expert stakeholders identified through publicly available biographies and snowball referral. Thematic analysis was used to identify, synthesize and cross-compare emergent themes from both data sources that were subsequently organized into core facets of the Human Activity Assistive Technology (HAAT) model.
Results. The scoping review resulted in 28 studies, which were primarily feasibility work with small sample sizes. Interviewed experts (N = 17) had 4+ years of MCI/ADRD experience, came from a variety of settings, and held myriad roles. Real world and research-based use of DHTs held some commonalities, particularly around support for social participation and instrumental activities of daily engagement. No DHT for sleep or work/volunteerism were noted in either phase. People with milder MCI/ADRD conditions were most often targeted users. Soft technology strategies facilitating implementation centred on product design (e.g., prompting software, customisability, multimedia/multisensory experiences), instructional methods and technology partner involvement.
Conclusions. This study demonstrates that although DHT supportive of activity participation is being studied and integrated into the lives of PwMCI/ADRD, there are still key opportunities for growth to meet the needs of diverse MCI/ADRD end users.
Keywords. Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias; digital health technology; activity participation; scoping review; older adults; activities of daily living; digital divide
Sentell, T. L., Agner, J. L., Davis, J., Mannem, S., Seto, T. B., Valente, T. W., Vawer, M., & Taira, D. A. (2022). Social networks in patients hospitalized with preventable conditions for heart disease and diabetes in Hawai‘i by health literacy. Chronic Illness, 18(3), 517-531. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395320987892 Show abstract
Objectives. Reducing potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPH) for chronic disease is a research and practice priority. Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have disparities in PPH, and are understudied in both health literacy and social network research. Greater inclusion of social and familial networks can help address health disparities among people with chronic illness and enhance culturally relevant healthcare.
Methods. Adults hospitalized with a heart disease or diabetes-related PHH in Hawai‘i (N = 22) were assessed for health literacy and social network membership (“alters”).
Results. Sixty-nine percent of respondents were NHOPI. Three respondents (14%) had no alters (“isolates”). Among non-isolates, 79% desired the participation of at least one alter in chronic disease management-related interventions. Fifty-nine percent of respondents had low health literacy. While the mean number of alters did not vary significantly by health literacy, those with lower health literacy had a trend (p = .055) towards less interest in social network engagement.
Discussion. In a sample primarily comprised of NHOPI with chronic disease, many patients wished to include social network members in interventions. Engagement varied by health literacy with implications for health disparities. Not all patients were interested in social network engagement, which must be considered in intervention planning.
Keywords. Social networks, ambulatory care sensitive conditions, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, chronic disease, diabetes, heart disease, medications
Kilroy, E., Ring, P., Hossain, A., Nalbach, A., Butera, C., Harrison, L., Jayashankar, A., Vigen, C., Aziz-Zadeh, L., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Motor performance, praxis, and social skills in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder. Autism Research, 15(9), 1649-1664. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2774 Show abstract
Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have overlapping social and motor skill impairments. This study compares ASD, DCD, and typically developing (TD) youth on a range of social, praxis and motor skills, and investigates the relationship between these skills in each group. Data were collected on participants aged 8–17 (n = 33 ASD, n = 28 DCD, n = 35 TD). Overall, the clinical groups showed some similar patterns of social and motor impairments but diverged in praxis impairments, cognitive empathy, and Theory of Mind ability. When controlling for both social and motor performance impairments, the ASD group showed significantly lower accuracy on imitation of meaningful gestures and gesture to command, indicating a prominent deficit in these praxis skills in ASD.
Frank, G. (2022). Occupational science’s stalled revolution and a manifesto for reconstruction. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(4), 455-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2022.2110658 Show abstract
This publication develops a keynote presented at the 27th USC Chan Occupational Science Symposium, “Occupations disrupted: Pandemics and the reshaping of everyday life,” on November 5, 2021. I used the social theory of occupational reconstructions — shared problem-solving through narrative alignments and collective action — to reflect on occupational science’s progress since its founding 30 years ago. I argue that (1) the science of occupation has stalled in today’s neoliberal university; and that (2) ‘consequential questions’ must be formulated across the discipline to develop useful knowledge from different locations, positionalities, and contexts. A ‘consequential question,’ I propose, produces knowledge useful to solving problems of wide concern to the discipline, other disciplines, and the public; and sets up a scientific research program that progresses empirically and theoretically. I explain why the founders’ pragmatist framing of occupation as mind-body experience remains important to recent critiques of the discipline and its future advancement. Likewise, I explain how pragmatism can and must transact with various critical (Marxist, poststructuralist) philosophies and other (positivist, alternative) epistemologies regarding societal problems such as occupational justice, human rights, decolonization, political polarization, and the erosion of democracy. I suggest that federally funded biomedical research in the neoliberal university is not currently designed to advance a science of occupation, although it could if occupational scientists were to face the discipline’s contradictions under neoliberalism and reconstruct its common purpose.
Keywords. Occupational science; Pragmatism; Critical social theory; Racial justice
Huot, S., Aldrich, R. M., Laliberte Rudman, D., & Stone, M. (2022). Picturing precarity through occupational mapping: Making the (im)mobilities of long-term unemployment visible. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(4), 529-544. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1821244 Show abstract
The 2008 recession had long-lasting economic effects that made everyday experiences of precarity more prevalent in many countries. Within a broader neoliberal context, however, the prevalence of precarity and its social production tends to be obscured, leading to a need for actions aimed at enhancing social awareness and informing social change. In this article, we illustrate how the precarity associated with long-term unemployment, which persisted at historically high levels through 2018, can be made visible by analyzing the mobilities of occupational engagement. Our illustrations derive from a larger four-phase collaborative ethnography conducted in the United States and Canada between 2014 and 2018. Informed by a critical occupational science perspective, the study utilized multiple methods to generate data with participants who self-identified as being long-term unemployed. One of those methods, occupational mapping, explored how participants negotiated daily routines and occupations at the local scale during their unemployment. Analysis of four exemplar cases, as informed by the mobilities paradigm, illuminates the lived impacts and geospatial effects of precarity on everyday occupations in situations of long-term unemployment. Findings contribute to the wider examination of how precarity is spatially experienced within the situation of long-term unemployment as reflected in people’s (im)mobilities and occupational engagement.
Keywords. Occupational science; Activation; Ethnography; Mobilities; Occupational mapping; Long-term unemployment; Precarity
Ringold, S. M., McGuire, R. W., Jayashankar, A., Kilroy, E., Butera, C. D., Harrison, L., Cermak, S. A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Sensory modulation in children with developmental coordination disorder compared to autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. Brain Sciences, 12(9), 1171. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091171 Show abstract
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is one of the least studied and understood developmental disorders. One area that has been minimally investigated in DCD is potential issues with sensory modulation. Further, in other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) sensory modulation is related to many other challenges (e.g., social issues, repetitive behaviors, anxiety); however, such potential relationships in children with DCD have been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to explore sensory modulation differences in DCD and to understand the relationships between sensory modulation and social emotional measures, behavior, and motor skills in DCD in comparison to ASD and typically developing (TD) peers. Participants (aged 8–17) and their caregivers (DCD, N = 26; ASD, N = 57; and TD, N = 53) completed behavioral and clinical measures. The results indicated that 31% of the DCD group showed sensory modulation difficulties, with the DCD group falling between the ASD and TD groups. In the DCD group, sensory modulation was significantly associated with anxiety, empathic concern, repetitive behaviors, and motor skills. Data are compared to patterns seen in ASD and TD groups and implications for interventions are discussed.
Keywords. developmental coordination disorder; sensory processing; autism spectrum disorder; behavior; social emotional; motor skills; dyspraxia; empathy; sensory modulation; anxiety
Williams, M. E., Stein Duker, L. I., Vigen, C. L., Wylde, C., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Brief Report: Caregiver confidence in reporting anxiety symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52(8), 3727–3733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05210-6 Show abstract
Assessment of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) most commonly includes parent questionnaires. However, due to the nature of the questions and verbal limitations often present in children with ASD, caregivers may have difficulty completing such measures. Caregivers of 144 children with ASD ages 6 to 12 completed the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4 ASD Anxiety Scale and rated their level of confidence in responding to each item. Results indicated that parents had a moderate to high level of confidence in rating their children’s anxiety symptoms. Parent confidence was not influenced by their child’s age, expressive language ability, or intellectual functioning, but was related to their child’s anxiety symptom count and ASD severity.
Hayward, K., Ferris, J. K., Lohse, K. R., Borich, M. R., Borstad, A., Cassidy, J. M., Cramer, S. C., Dukelow, S. P., Findlater, S. E., Hawe, R. L., Liew, S.-L., Neva, J. L., Stewart, J. C., & Boyd, L. A. (2022). Observational study of neuroimaging biomarkers of severe upper limb impairment after stroke. Neurology, 99(4), e402-e413. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200517 Show abstract
Background and objectives. It is difficult to predict post-stroke outcome for people with severe motor impairment, as both clinical tests and corticospinal tract (CST) microstructure may not reliably indicate severe motor impairment. Here, we test whether imaging biomarkers beyond the CST relate to severe upper limb impairment post-stroke by evaluating white matter microstructure in the corpus callosum (CC). In an international, multisite hypothesis-generating observational study we determined if: a) CST asymmetry index can differentiate between individuals with mild-moderate and severe upper limb impairment; and b) CC biomarkers relate to upper limb impairment within individuals with severe impairment post-stroke. We hypothesised that CST asymmetry index would differentiate between mild-moderate and severe impairment, but CC microstructure would relate to motor outcome for individuals with severe upper limb impairment.
Methods. Seven cohorts with individual diffusion imaging and motor impairment (Fugl Meyer-Upper Limb) data were pooled. Hand-drawn regions-of-interest were used to seed probabilistic tractography for CST (ipsilesional/contralesional) and CC (prefrontal/premotor/motor/sensory/posterior) tracts. Our main imaging measure was mean fractional anisotropy. Linear mixed-effect regression explored relationships between candidate biomarkers and motor impairment, controlling for observations nested within cohorts, as well as age, sex, time post-stroke and lesion volume.
Results. Data from 110 individuals (30 mild-moderate, 80 with severe motor impairment) were included. In the full sample, greater CST asymmetry index (i.e., lower fractional anisotropy in the ipsilesional hemisphere, p<.001) and larger lesion volume (p=.139) were negatively related to impairment. In the severe subgroup, CST asymmetry index was not reliably associated with impairment across models. Instead, lesion volume and CC microstructure explained impairment in the severe group beyond CST asymmetry index (p’s<.010).
Conclusions. Within a large cohort of individuals with severe upper limb impairment, CC microstructure related to motor outcome post-stroke. Our findings demonstrate that CST microstructure does relate to upper limb outcome across the full range of motor impairment but was not reliably associated within the severe subgroup. Therefore, CC microstructure may provide a promising biomarker for severe upper limb outcome post-stroke, which may advance our ability to predict recovery in people with severe motor impairment after stroke.
Butera, C. D., Harrison, L., Jayashankar, A., Shipkova, M., Pruyser, A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Relationships between alexithymia, interoception, and emotional empathy in autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/13623613221111310 Show abstract
Some studies suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder have reduced emotional empathy while others do not. The presence of co-occurring alexithymia in autism spectrum disorder and differences in interoception have been associated with reductions in empathic ability. To fully explore the relationships between interoception, alexithymia, and emotional empathy, we collected self-report and interview data in 35 youth with autism spectrum disorder and 40 typically developing controls (ages 8–17 years). The autism spectrum disorder sample had increased alexithymia and physiological hyperarousal compared to typically developing controls, but there were no group differences in interoception or emotional empathy. Alexithymia severity correlated with higher personal distress in both groups and with lower empathic concern in the autism spectrum disorder group. Within the autism spectrum disorder group, higher incidence of reports of bodily sensation when describing emotional experience correlated with lower personal distress and lower alexithymia. In addition, although empathic concern was negatively correlated with alexithymia in the autism spectrum disorder group, across groups, the alexithymia hypothesis was supported in only the personal distress domain of emotional empathy. These results suggest emotional empathy; personal distress, in particular, is not intrinsically impaired in autism spectrum disorder.
Holguin, J. A., Margetis, J. L., Narayan, A., Yoneoka, G. M., & Irimia, A. (2022). Vascular cognitive impairment after mild stroke: Connectomic insights, neuroimaging, and knowledge translation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 905979. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.905979 Show abstract
Contemporary stroke assessment protocols have a limited ability to detect vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), especially among those with subtle deficits. This lesser-involved categorization, termed mild stroke (MiS), can manifest compromised processing speed that negatively impacts cognition. From a neurorehabilitation perspective, research spanning neuroimaging, neuroinformatics, and cognitive neuroscience supports that processing speed is a valuable proxy for complex neurocognitive operations, insofar as inefficient neural network computation significantly affects daily task performance. This impact is particularly evident when high cognitive loads compromise network efficiency by challenging task speed, complexity, and duration. Screening for VCI using processing speed metrics can be more sensitive and specific. Further, they can inform rehabilitation approaches that enhance patient recovery, clarify the construct of MiS, support clinician-researcher symbiosis, and further clarify the occupational therapy role in targeting functional cognition. To this end, we review relationships between insult-derived connectome alterations and VCI, and discuss novel clinical approaches for identifying disruptions of neural networks and white matter connectivity. Furthermore, we will frame knowledge translation efforts to leverage insights from cutting-edge structural and functional connectomics research. Lastly, we highlight how occupational therapists can provide expertise as knowledge brokers acting within their established scope of practice to drive substantive clinical innovation.
Richter, M., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Health care professional perceptions about a proposed NICU intervention: The importance of community and aligning with everyday occupations. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 42(3), 238-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492221082051 Show abstract
The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a dynamic system with multiple stakeholders and contextual factors impacting the implementation of novel practices. This qualitative study aimed to (a) define health care professionals’ perceptions on the feasibility of implementing a sensory intervention to study its efficacy, and (b) elaborate on transactions occurring between NICU health care professionals and the proposed research. Eleven NICU professionals participated in one of three focus groups that were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically in NVivo first descriptively and then interpretively through a transactionalism lens. The health care professionals implied the intervention was feasible, but provided multiple suggestions to enhance implementation. The modification of familiar occupational practices, ingrained habits, and the potential impact on the collective occupational performance of NICU community members arose. Understanding occupations within the NICU as transactional allows for a broader view of occupational engagement and enhances knowledge of the nuances related to implementing clinical changes.
Keywords. qualitative research, neonate, occupational engagement, occupational science, occupational performance
Richter, M., Fehringer, K., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Parent-infant interaction in the NICU: Challenges in measurement. Early Human Development, 170, 105609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2022.105609 Show abstract
Background. Parent-infant interaction is poorly understood among high-risk dyads in NICU settings. No parent-infant interaction measures are specifically designed for preterm infants within the NICU nor account for the education NICU parents receive to tailor their interactions based on the infant's cues.
Aim. To improve our understanding of a measure of parent-infant interaction in the NICU, we investigated relationships between parent-infant interaction scores on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and 1) socio-demographic and medical factors, 2) parent mental health and confidence, and 3) enhanced parental education (delivered as part of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences program) on tailoring interactions based on the infant's cues.
Method. Twenty-six preterm infants (born ≤32 weeks) had a video recorded oral feeding conducted by a parent in the NICU when the infant was 34–48 weeks postmenstrual age. A certified evaluator scored parent-infant interaction from the videos using the NCAFS.
Results. Seventeen (65 %) parent-infant dyads scored below the 10th percentile on the total NCAFS score. Despite it being well-understood that parent-infant interaction is related to sociodemographic factors and parental mental health, there were no relationships between these factors and NCAFS scores in this study. Dyads who received enhanced parent education (n = 15) had lower NCAFS scores than dyads receiving usual care (n = 11) (p = 0.01).
Conclusion. It remains unclear if the standard measure of parent-infant interaction, NCAFS, captured positive and negative interactions in context of assessment of a high-risk dyad within the NICU setting. The utility of the NCAFS with preterm infants in the NICU was not supported by this study.
Keywords. Premature infant; Human development; Parents; Interactions
Donnelly, M. R., Fukumura, Y. E., & Richter, M. (2022). Untapped sources of contextualized knowledge: Exploring occupational disruption during COVID-19 as showcased through YouTube parodies. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(3), 417-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2021.1991841 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic led to stay-at-home mandates and lockdowns around the globe. During this time of occupational disruption and social distancing measures, many engaged through online environments. Social media are ever-increasing hosts of occupation and participation, rich with research opportunities. In this study, we explored COVID-19 experiences by analyzing parody videos posted on YouTube by various content creators. We analyzed the lyrics of 27 viral videos (accrued 1 million or more views) by 20 content creators. Using a transactional framework, we identified five themes related to occupational disruption in the lyrics and explored the polarity of the concepts within each theme: old norms vs. new normal, time expanded vs. time condensed, control seeking vs. lack of control, social isolation vs. excess socialization, and cynicism vs. hope. Our findings demonstrated the complex transactions between previous habits and routines, changing spaces of occupation, and meaning of daily occupations within evolving social, economic, and physical contexts. While this study showcased YouTube videos as one untapped source of contextualized knowledge for occupational science, there is a need for further exploration of methodological and ethical challenges of studying digital content.
Stein Duker, L. I., Martinez, M., Lane, C. J., Polido, J. C., & Cermak, S. A. (2022). Association between oral care challenges and sensory over-responsivity in children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 32(4), 546-557. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12933 Show abstract
Background. Sensory over-responsivity has been linked to oral care challenges in children with special healthcare needs. Parents of children with Down syndrome (cDS) have reported sensory over-responsivity in their children, but the link between this and oral care difficulties has not been explored.
Aim. Investigate relationship between sensory over-responsivity and oral care challenges in cDS.
Design. Online survey examined parent-report responses describing their cDS’s oral care (5-14yrs; n=367); children were categorized as sensory over-responders (SORs) or sensory not over-responders (SNORs). Chi-square analyses tested associations between groups (SORs vs. SNORs) and dichotomous oral care variables.
Results. More parents of SOR children, compared to SNOR, reported that: child behavior (SOR:86%, SNOR:77%; p<.05) and sensory sensitivities (SOR:34%, SNOR:18%; p<.001) make dental care challenging, their child complains about ≥3 types of sensory stimuli encountered during care (SOR:39%, SNOR:28%; p=.04), their dentist is specialized in treating children with special needs (SOR:45%, SNOR:33%; p=.03), and their child requires full assistance to brush teeth (SOR:41%, SNOR:28%; p=.008). No group differences were found in items examining parent-reported oral health or care access.
Conclusions. Parents of SOR children report greater challenges than parents of SNOR children at the dentist and in the home, including challenging behaviors and sensory sensitivities.
Chen, Y.-J., Sideris, J., Watson, L. R., Crais, E. R., & Baranek, G. T. (2022). Developmental trajectories of sensory patterns from infancy to school age in a community sample and associations with autistic traits. Child Development, 93(4), e446-e459. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13745 Show abstract
This prospective study examined the latent growth trajectories of sensory patterns among a North Carolina birth cohort (N = 1517; 49% boys, 87% White) across infancy (6–19 months), preschool (3–4 years), and school years (6–7 years). Change rates of sensory hyper- and hyporesponsiveness better differentiated children with an autism diagnosis or elevated autistic traits from those with other developmental conditions, including non-autistic children with sensory differences. More sensory hyper- and hyporesponsiveness at infancy followed by steeper increases differentially predicted more autistic traits at school age. Further, children of parents with higher education tended to show stable or improving trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of tracking sensory patterns from infancy for facilitating early identification of associated challenges and tailored support for families.
Aldrich, R. M., Bream, S., & McLaughlin Gray, J. (2022). Course creation as a response to intersecting pandemics: Enhancing students’ abilities to leverage and mobilize an occupational perspective. Journal of Occupational Science, 29(3), 441-450. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2022.2061038 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, as did calls to bring an occupational perspective to an evolving situation. However, the role of occupation-focused education in facilitating responses to the global crisis was missing from this dialogue. This paper aims to address that gap by describing the development of a new course delivered at the University of Southern California in 2020 and 2021. Grounded in occupational science, this special topics course aimed to meet various teaching and learning needs for the post-professional occupational therapy doctorate program. This paper describes how the focus, format, and content of the course developed through a backward design approach to address topics related to the COVID-19 pandemic and intersecting, ongoing crises of structural racism and health and social inequalities. The primary course assignment, a knowledge mobilization product, provided students novel opportunities to leverage their occupational perspectives in response to emergent issues. The paper concludes by addressing three interrelated topics: the importance of institutional mechanisms that facilitate responsive educational innovations; the need to track the teaching and learning impacts of such innovations; and how such innovations reflect the importance of occupational science education.
Keywords. Occupational science; Backward design; Knowledge mobilization; Professional education; Occupational therapy
Hernandez, R., Roll, S. C., Jin, H., Schneider, S., & Pyatak, E. A. (2022). Validation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) adapted for the whole day repeated measures context. Ergonomics, 65(7), 960-975. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.2006317 Show abstract
Our objective was to investigate the validity of four-item and six-item versions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX, or TLX for short) for measuring workload over a whole day in the repeated measures context. We analyzed data on 51 people with type 1 diabetes from whom we collected ecological momentary assessment and daily diary data over 14 days. The TLX was administered at the last survey of every day. Confirmatory factor analysis fit statistics indicated that neither the TLX-6 nor TLX-4 were a unidimensional representation of whole day workload. In exploratory analyses, another set of TLX items we refer to as TLX-4v2 was sufficiently unidimensional. Raw sum scores from the TLX-6 and TLX-4v2 had plausible relationships with other measures, as evidenced by intra-person correlations and mixed-effects models. TLX-6 appears to capture multiple factors contributing to workload, while TLX-4v2 assesses the single factor of “mental strain.”
Lisle, J., Buma, K., Smith, J., Richter, M., Satpute, P., & Pineda, R. (2022). Maternal perceptions about sensory interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit: An exploratory qualitative study. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 10, 884329. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.884329 Show abstract
Background. Mothers play an important role in providing positive sensory experiences to their infants during NICU hospitalization. However, little is known regarding maternal perceptions about sensory-based interventions in the NICU. Further, understanding maternal perceptions was an important part of the process during development of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program.
Methods. Twenty mothers of very preterm infants were interviewed after NICU discharge and asked open-ended questions about sensory-based interventions they performed in the NICU and probed about their perceptions related to the development of a sensory-based guideline and the use of volunteers to provide sensory-based interventions when unable to be present in the NICU. Interviews were transcribed and uploaded into NVivoV.12 for content analysis.
Results. Mothers reported that kangaroo care was a common sensory intervention they performed in the NICU. Of the 18 mothers who commented on the development of a sensory-based guideline, 17 (94%) said they would be accepting of one. Among 19 mothers, 18 (95%) supported volunteers conducting sensory-based interventions in their absence. Identified themes included: 1) Perceptions about development of a sensory-based guideline, 2) Perceptions of interactions with healthcare providers, 3) Maternal participation in sensory interventions, 4) Maternal experience, and 5) Emotions from mothers.
Conclusion. Maternal perceptions regarding the development of a sensory-based guideline were favorable, and the SENSE program has since been finalized after incorporating important insights learned from stakeholders in this study. Mothers' perceptions were tied to their NICU experiences, which elicited strong emotions. These findings highlight important considerations when developing family-centered interventions.
Keywords. development, sensory, therapy, NICU (neonatal intensive care unit), qualitative study
Angell, A. M., Varma, D. S., Deavenport-Saman, A., Yin, L., Solomon, O., Bai, C., & Zou, B. (2022). Effects of sex, race, and ethnicity on primary and subspecialty healthcare use by autistic children in Florida: A longitudinal retrospective cohort study (2012–2018). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 94, 101951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2022.101951 Show abstract
Background. Autistic children and youth have high rates of co-occurring conditions,but little is known about how autism subgroups (girls, non-White children) access healthcare to treat them. The purpose of this longitudinal retrospective cohort study was to investigate differences by sex, race, and ethnicity in non-acute (primary and subspecialty) healthcare use by autistic children and youth.
Method. We used the OneFlorida Data Trust to measure healthcare use for 82,566 autistic children ages 1–21 (2012–2018). We investigated (1) the odds of using any healthcare and (2) annual healthcare usage rates. We adopted a logistic regression and multiple linear regression for each of the dependent variables (total non-acute, primary care, gastroenterology (GI), developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP), psychiatry/psychology, neurology, and total subspecialty visits), adjusting for potential confounders (sex, race, ethnicity, age at visit, insurance type, urbanicity, and co-occurring conditions).
Results. Autistic boys had significantly higher odds of any neurology and psychiatry/psychology visits, but lower annual rates of primary care, GI, and neurology visits. Black/African American autistic children had significantly higher odds of any primary care, DBP, and neurology visits, but lower odds of any GI visits, and lower annual rates of primary care, GI, DBP, and neurology visits. Hispanic/Latinx autistic children had significantly higher odds of any primary care, DBP, and neurology visits, but lower odds of psychiatry/psychology visits; and higher annual rates of neurology visits, but lower annual rates of GI, DBP, and psychiatry/psychology visits.
Conclusions. We found significant differences by sex, race, and ethnicity in non-acute healthcare use by autistic children.
Keywords. Autism spectrum disorders; Sex/gender; Healthcare utilization
Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Lo, B., Donnelly, M. R., Schweighofer, N., Lohse, K., Jahanshad, N., Barisano, G., Banaj, N., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Conforto, A. B., DiCarlo, J. A., Dula, A. N., Egorova-Brumley, N., Etherton, M. R., Feng, W., Fercho, K. A., Geranmayeh, F., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K. S., Hordacre, B., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lin, D. J., Liu, J., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Piras, F., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P. S., Robertson, A. D., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Stinear, C. M., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Taga, M., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Werden, E., Winstein, C., Wittenberg, G. F., Wolf, S. L., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Brodtmann, A., Cramer, S. C., Thompson, P. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2022). Chronic stroke sensorimotor impairment is related to smaller hippocampal volumes: An ENIGMA analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(10), e025109. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025109 Show abstract
Background. Persistent sensorimotor impairments after stroke can negatively impact quality of life. The hippocampus is vulnerable to poststroke secondary degeneration and is involved in sensorimotor behavior but has not been widely studied within the context of poststroke upper-limb sensorimotor impairment. We investigated associations between non-lesioned hippocampal volume and upper limb sensorimotor impairment in people with chronic stroke, hypothesizing that smaller ipsilesional hippocampal volumes would be associated with greater sensorimotor impairment.
Methods and Results. Cross-sectional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain were pooled from 357 participants with chronic stroke from 18 research cohorts of the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuoImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Stroke Recovery Working Group. Sensorimotor impairment was estimated from the FMA-UE (Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity). Robust mixed-effects linear models were used to test associations between poststroke sensorimotor impairment and hippocampal volumes (ipsilesional and contralesional separately; Bonferroni-corrected, P<0.025), controlling for age, sex, lesion volume, and lesioned hemisphere. In exploratory analyses, we tested for a sensorimotor impairment and sex interaction and relationships between lesion volume, sensorimotor damage, and hippocampal volume. Greater sensorimotor impairment was significantly associated with ipsilesional (P=0.005; β=0.16) but not contralesional (P=0.96; β=0.003) hippocampal volume, independent of lesion volume and other covariates (P=0.001; β=0.26). Women showed progressively worsening sensorimotor impairment with smaller ipsilesional (P=0.008; β=−0.26) and contralesional (P=0.006; β=−0.27) hippocampal volumes compared with men. Hippocampal volume was associated with lesion size (P<0.001; β=−0.21) and extent of sensorimotor damage (P=0.003; β=−0.15).
Conclusions. The present study identifies novel associations between chronic poststroke sensorimotor impairment and ipsilesional hippocampal volume that are not caused by lesion size and may be stronger in women.
Gangireddy, R., Chakraborty, S., Pakenham-Walsh, N., Nagarajan, B., Krishan, P., McGuire, R., Vaghela, G., & Sriharan, A. (2022). Themes surrounding COVID-19 and its infodemic: Qualitative analysis of the COVID-19 discussion on the multidisciplinary Healthcare Information for All health forum. JMIR Infodemiology, 2(1), e30167. https://doi.org/10.2196/30167 Show abstract
Background. Healthcare Information for All (HIFA) is a multidisciplinary global campaign consisting of more than 20,000 members worldwide committed to improving the availability and use of health care information in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). During the COVID-19 pandemic, online HIFA forums saw a tremendous amount of discussion regarding the lack of information about COVID-19, the spread of misinformation, and the pandemic’s impact on different communities.
Objective. This study aims to analyze the themes and perspectives shared in the COVID-19 discussion on English HIFA forums.
Methods. Over a period of 8 months, a qualitative thematic content analysis of the COVID-19 discussion on English HIFA forums was conducted. In total, 865 posts between January 24 and October 31, 2020, from 246 unique study participants were included and analyzed.
Results. In total, 6 major themes were identified: infodemic, health system, digital health literacy, economic consequences, marginalized peoples, and mental health. The geographical distribution of study participants involved in the discussion spanned across 46 different countries in every continent except Antarctica. Study participants’ professions included public health workers, health care providers, and researchers, among others. Study participants’ affiliation included nongovernment organizations (NGOs), commercial organizations, academic institutions, the United Nations (UN), the World Health Organization (WHO), and others.
Conclusions. The themes that emerged from this analysis highlight personal recounts, reflections, suggestions, and evidence around addressing COVID-19 related misinformation and might also help to understand the timeline of information evolution, focus, and needs surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords. infodemic; infodemiology; COVID-19; pandemic; misinformation; health information; theme; public health; qualitative study; global health
Kinney, A. R., Stephenson, R. O., Cogan, A. M., Forster, J. E., Gerber, H. R., & Brenner, L. A. (2022). Participation mediates the relationship between postconcussive symptoms and suicidal ideation among veterans. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(3), 7603205020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.048561 Show abstract
Importance. Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and associated symptoms are at risk for suicide. Postconcussive symptoms (PCS) may heighten risk for suicidal thoughts by limiting veterans’ participation.
Objective. To investigate whether participation mediates the relationship between PCS and suicidal ideation.
Design. Cross-sectional, exploratory design. Structural equation models were used to investigate whether participation mediated the relationship between PCS and suicidal ideation.
Participants. Veterans with mTBI (N = 145).
Outcomes and Measures. The Ohio State University TBI Identification Method was used to establish mTBI diagnosis. We identified latent variables for PCS and participation using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory and select domains of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form–36, respectively. We used the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation to measure the presence of suicidal ideation.
Results. Participation mediated the relationship between PCS and the presence of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, p = .011). More severe PCS were associated with lesser participation (β = –.86, p < .001); greater participation was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 0.92, p = .007).
Conclusions and Relevance. PCS may heighten risk for suicidal thoughts among veterans by limiting successful participation, a primary target of occupational therapy intervention. Thus, the results suggest that occupational therapy practitioners can play a substantial role in suicide prevention services for veterans with mTBI. Preventive services could mitigate suicide risk among veterans with mTBI by enabling sustained engagement in meaningful and health-promoting activity (e.g., reasons for living) and targeting PCS.
Keywords. post-concussion syndrome, traumatic brain injury, mild, veterans, suicidal behavior
Katz Zetler, N., Cermak, S. A., Engel-Yeger, B., Baranek, G., & Gal, E. (2022). Association between sensory features and high-order repetitive and restricted behaviors and interests among children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(3), 7603205010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.048082 Show abstract
Importance. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often referred to occupational therapy practitioners so their sensory features and their repetitive and restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) can be addressed. RRBIs include an insistence on sameness, narrow interests, rigid routines, and rituals. However, there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the association between sensory features—across patterns, modalities, and contexts—and high-order RRBIs among children with ASD who are cognitively able.
Objective. To examine the association between sensory features across sensory patterns, modalities, and contexts and high-order RRBIs in children with ASD.
Design. Correlational clinical study based on parent questionnaire responses.
Setting. General education system in Israel.
Participants. Parents of 39 cognitively able school-age children with ASD (ages 6–10 yr; 34 boys and 5 girls), recruited by means of convenience sampling.
Outcomes. High-order RRBIs were assessed with relevant subscales from the Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised (RBS–R), and sensory features across patterns, modalities, and contexts were examined with the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire, Version 2.1. The study hypotheses were formulated before data were collected.
Results. Significant correlations were observed between the high-order RRBIs of children with ASD and their sensory features across patterns, sensory modalities, and contexts. Fifty-one percent of the total RBS–R scores were predicted by sensory hyperresponsiveness, and an additional 11% were predicted by sensory-seeking behaviors.
Conclusions and Relevance. The hypotheses concerning the association between sensory features and high-order RRBIs were confirmed. The findings enhance occupational therapy practitioners’ understanding of this association and may assist in the planning of more efficient interventions.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder, child
Baranek, G. T., Sideris, J., Chen, Y.-J., Crais, E. R., Turner-Brown, L., & Watson, L. R. (2022). Early measurement of autism risk constructs in the general population: A new factor structure of the First Years Inventory (FYIv3.1) for ages 6–16 months. Autism Research, 15(5), 915-928. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2691 Show abstract
Early detection of autism risk in the community is critical to increasing families' access to early intervention, yet few measures have been developed and tested for the general population of infants <16 months to tap a broader range of autism risk constructs. This study aimed to (a) examine the factor structure of the First Years Inventory, version 3.1 (FYIv3.1), with a sample of 6454 infants 6–16 months, and (b) determine the ability of the resulting factors to discriminate clinical outcome groups at 3 years of age. The FYIv3.1 is a parent-report tool designed to detect early behavioral risk signs that may be associated with a later diagnosis of ASD and related neurodevelopmental conditions. Factor analytic models were used to determine the number of constructs and inter-factor correlations. Findings supported a seven-factor structure: communication, imitation and play (CIP); social attention and affective engagement (SAE); sensory hyperresponsiveness (HYPER); sensory hyporesponsiveness (HYPO); self-regulation in daily routines (SREG); sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS); motor coordination and milestones (MCM). Mean comparisons on these factors demonstrated significant discrimination of the three outcome groups at age 3 years including those classified as having an ASD diagnosis and/or high autism symptoms, those classified as having other developmental disorders/conditions/concerns, and those classified with no known conditions/concerns. These findings support the validity and multidimensionality of early ASD risk constructs, as well as the potential use of the FYIv3.1 for phenotypic subtyping in the general population, and early detection in a broader age range of 6–16 months in future clinical studies.
Benitez, A. D., Park, D., & Bream, S. (2022). International students’ and alumni perspectives on their transition to graduate level occupational therapy education and daily life in the United States. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 6(2), 11. https://doi.org/10.26681/jote.2022.060211 Show abstract
International students who enroll in American occupational therapy academic programs must quickly adapt to the academic demands and everyday life rhythms within the United States. This qualitative study contributes to the body of knowledge of lived experiences of international occupational therapy students, specific to their transition to graduate occupational therapy education and daily life in a new country. Thirteen (13) international occupational therapy graduate students and alumni participated in an individual or joint interview. Three key themes emerged from the findings and include the following: 1) Challenges: Inside and Outside of the Classroom, 2) A Support System: A Home Away from Home, and 3) Giving Back to my Home Country: Improving Occupational Therapy Education, Practice, and Research. This study provides insights into the challenges experienced by international graduate occupational therapy students and alumni, strategies that are beneficial in supporting them as they transition into graduate level education and daily life within the United States, and their motivations for giving back to their home countries.
Pham, L., Sarnicola, R., Villasenor, C., & Vu, T. (2022). Spirituality in occupational therapy practice: Where is our spirituality now? OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 42(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492211068216 Show abstract
Although occupational therapy (OT) practitioners are well suited to address spirituality within client care, evidence suggests many practitioners feel discomfort or lack of knowledge of this subject. Few studies have delved into OTs’ experiences and encapsulated if and how spirituality has been experienced in practice. This study aimed to gain a deeper and more updated insight into this phenomenon. Utilizing a phenomenological approach with interviews, this study explored OT practitioners’ (n = 15) experiences with spirituality in client care. (a) Losing spirit: the inadequacy of only addressing mind and body, (b) spirituality as a vehicle for reaffirming purpose in both client and therapist, and (c) addressing spirituality through functional and measurable treatments. Although the concept of mind, body, and spirit is not new, occupational therapists often do not consistently address these components simultaneously, leading to missed opportunities in client practice.
Keywords. spirituality, occupational therapy, qualitative research
Rodrigues, P. B., Xiao, Y., Fukumura, Y. E., Awada, M., Aryal, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Ergonomic assessment of office worker postures using 3D automated joint angle assessment. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 52, 101596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2022.101596 Show abstract
Sedentary activity and static postures are associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and worker discomfort. Ergonomic evaluation for office workers is commonly performed by experts using tools such as the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), but there is limited evidence suggesting sustained compliance with expert’s recommendations. Assessing postural shifts across a day and identifying poor postures would benefit from automation by means of real-time, continuous feedback. Automated postural assessment methods exist; however, they are usually based on ideal conditions that may restrict users’ postures, clothing, and hair styles, or may require unobstructed views of the participants. Using a Microsoft Kinect camera and open-source computer vision algorithms, we propose an automated ergonomic assessment algorithm to monitor office worker postures, the 3D Automated Joint Angle Assessment, 3D-AJA. The validity of the 3D-AJA was tested by comparing algorithm-calculated joint angles to the angles obtained from manual goniometry and the Kinect Software Development Kit (SDK) for 20 participants in an office space. The results of the assessment show that the 3D-AJA has mean absolute errors ranging from 5.6° ± 5.1° to 8.5° ± 8.1° for shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion relative to joint angle measurements from goniometry. Additionally, the 3D-AJA showed relatively good performance on the classification of RULA score A using a Random Forest model (micro averages F1-score = 0.759, G-mean = 0.811), even at high levels of occlusion on the subjects’ lower limbs. The results of the study provide a basis for the development of a full-body ergonomic assessment for office workers, which can support personalized behavior change and help office workers to adjust their postures, thus reducing their risks of WMSDs.
Keywords. Ergonomic assessment; RULA; Engineering office environments; Depth camera; Computer vision; Machine learning
Hardison, M. E., Unger, J., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Hand therapy patients’ psychosocial symptomology and interests in mindfulness: A cross-sectional study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 89(1), 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/00084174211060120 Show abstract
Background. Psychosocial sequelae are common for individuals with physical injuries to the upper extremity. However, psychosocially oriented interventions are not common in this occupational therapy practice area.
Purpose. This study implemented an online survey of hand therapy patients’ psychological symptoms. Second, it explored patients’ interest in one psychosocially oriented intervention: mindfulness meditation.
Methods. The design was a cross-sectional survey of 120 consecutively recruited hand therapy patients. Survey measures included functioning, psychosocial factors, and trait mindfulness.
Findings. Anxiety was prevalent in this sample, and moderately correlated with trait mindfulness (r = −0.542, p < .001). While most participants (77%) indicated mindfulness meditation would be an acceptable intervention, women were 2.8 times as likely to be interested (p = .044).
Implications. Psychosocially oriented interventions are indicated in hand therapy based on the prevalence of these symptoms. Further examination of using mindfulness meditation in hand therapy is warranted due to patient interest.
Ekhtiari, H., Ghobadi-Azbari, P., Thielscher, A., Antal, A., Li, L. M., Shereen, A. D., Cabral-Calderin, Y., Keeser, D., Bergmann, T. O., Jamil, A., Violante, I. R., Almeida, J., Meinzer, M., Siebner, H. R., Woods, A. J., Stagg, C. J., Abend, R., Antonenko, D., Auer, T., Bächinger, M., Baeken, C., Barron, H. C., Chase, H. W., Crinion, J., Datta, A., Davis, M. H., Ebrahimi, M., Esmaeilpour, Z., Falcone, B., Fiori, V., Ghodratitoostani, I., Gilam, G., Grabner, R. H., Greenspan, J. D., Groen, G., Hartwigsen, G., Hauser, T. U., Herrmann, C. S., Juan, C.-H., Krekelberg, B., Lefebvre, S., Liew, S.-L., Madsen, K. H., Mahdavifar-Khayati, R., Malmir, N., Marangolo, P., Martin, A. K., Meeker, T. J., Ardabili, H. M., Moisa, M., Momi, D., Mulyana, B., Opitz, A., Orlov, N., Ragert, P., Ruff, C. C., Ruffini, G., Ruttorf, M., Sangchooli, A., Schellhorn, K., Schlaug, G., Sehm, B., Soleimani, G., Tavakoli, H., Thompson, B., Timmann, D., Tsuchiyagaito, A., Ulrich, M., Vosskuhl, J., Weinrich, C. A., Zare-Bidoky, M., Zhang, X., Zoefel, B., Nitsche, M. A., & Bikson, M. (2022). A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of concurrent tES-fMRI studies (ContES checklist): a consensus study and statement. Nature Protocols, 17, 596–617. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-021-00664-5 Show abstract
Low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including alternating or direct current stimulation, applies weak electrical stimulation to modulate the activity of brain circuits. Integration of tES with concurrent functional MRI (fMRI) allows for the mapping of neural activity during neuromodulation, supporting causal studies of both brain function and tES effects. Methodological aspects of tES-fMRI studies underpin the results, and reporting them in appropriate detail is required for reproducibility and interpretability. Despite the growing number of published reports, there are no consensus-based checklists for disclosing methodological details of concurrent tES-fMRI studies. The objective of this work was to develop a consensus-based checklist of reporting standards for concurrent tES-fMRI studies to support methodological rigor, transparency and reproducibility (ContES checklist). A two-phase Delphi consensus process was conducted by a steering committee (SC) of 13 members and 49 expert panelists through the International Network of the tES-fMRI Consortium. The process began with a circulation of a preliminary checklist of essential items and additional recommendations, developed by the SC on the basis of a systematic review of 57 concurrent tES-fMRI studies. Contributors were then invited to suggest revisions or additions to the initial checklist. After the revision phase, contributors rated the importance of the 17 essential items and 42 additional recommendations in the final checklist. The state of methodological transparency within the 57 reviewed concurrent tES-fMRI studies was then assessed by using the checklist. Experts refined the checklist through the revision and rating phases, leading to a checklist with three categories of essential items and additional recommendations: (i) technological factors, (ii) safety and noise tests and (iii) methodological factors. The level of reporting of checklist items varied among the 57 concurrent tES-fMRI papers, ranging from 24% to 76%. On average, 53% of checklist items were reported in a given article. In conclusion, use of the ContES checklist is expected to enhance the methodological reporting quality of future concurrent tES-fMRI studies and increase methodological transparency and reproducibility.
Borelli, E., Butera, C., Katirai, A., Adams, T. C., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2022). Impact of motor stroke on novel and conventional action metaphor comprehension. Brain and Language, 226, 105081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2022.105081 Show abstract
Previous studies indicate that damage to motor brain regions impacts comprehension of literal action-related language. However, whether such damage also impacts comprehension of action-metaphors remains unknown. Such a finding would support the notion that metaphors are grounded in sensorimotor representations. Here we tested this hypothesis by comparing comprehension of novel, conventional, and frozen action and non-action metaphors in 14 right-handed adults with right-sided mild to moderate paresis following left hemisphere motor stroke and 23 neurotypical participants. Consistent with our hypothesis, results indicated that only in the stroke group, accuracy for action metaphors was significantly lower than for non-action metaphors. Further, in the stroke group, accuracy was significantly worse in the following pattern: novel < conventional < frozen action metaphors. These results strongly support the notion that motor-related brain regions are important not only for literal action-related language comprehension, but also for action-related metaphor comprehension, especially for less familiar metaphors.
Keywords. Embodied semantics theory; Motor stroke; Motor metaphor; Abstract language; Graded Salience Hypothesis
Cunningham, R., & Uyeshiro Simon, A. (2022). Interventions for instrumental activities of daily living among adults with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(2), 7602205130. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2022.049092 Show abstract
Importance. Occupational therapy practitioners need updated information about interventions that may improve or maintain functional changes in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) engagement caused by multiple sclerosis (MS).
Objective. To conduct a narrative synthesis of updated evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve or maintain performance of and participation in IADLs among adults with MS.
Data Sources. CINAHL, MEDLINE in PubMed, Cochrane, OTseeker, and PsycINFO.
Study Selection and Data Collection. This systematic review followed the Cochrane Collaboration methodology and is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for conducting a systematic review. Inclusion criteria were Level 1 or 2 evidence, published in English, published from January 2011 to December 2018, intervention within the occupational therapy scope of practice, and at least one IADL outcome measure.
Findings. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (including pilot and feasibility trials) and 1 preintervention–postintervention study met inclusion criteria. Results of this review show strong strength of evidence for coaching interventions in addressing physical activity (PA) routines and moderate support in addressing medication routines. Moderate strength of evidence was found with mixed results for interventions involving coaching plus prescribed PA in improving PA participation.
Conclusions and Relevance. This systematic review supports occupational therapy practitioners addressing PA and medication health management and maintenance IADLs through the use of coaching interventions when treating people with MS. Other IADLs were addressed by the articles in this review but require more evidence to make clinical recommendations.
Keywords. adult, health, multiple sclerosis, systematic reviews, occupational therapists
Stein Duker, L. I., Grager, M., Giffin, W., Hikita, N., & Polido, J. C. (2022). The relationship between dental fear and anxiety, general anxiety/fear, sensory over-responsivity, and oral health behaviors and outcomes: A conceptual model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2380. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042380 Show abstract
Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is common across the lifespan and represents a barrier to proper oral health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study is to present a conceptual model of the relationships between DFA, general anxiety/fear, sensory over-responsivity (SOR), and/or oral health behaviors and outcomes. Two rounds of literature searches were performed using the PubMed database. Included articles examined DFA, general anxiety/fear, SOR, catastrophizing, and/or oral health behaviors and outcomes in typically developing populations across the lifespan. The relationships between the constructs were recorded and organized into a conceptual model. A total of 188 articles were included. The results provided supporting evidence for relationships between DFA and all other constructs included in the model (general anxiety/fear, SOR, poor oral health, irregular dental attendance, dental behavior management problems [DBMP], and need for treatment with pharmacological methods). Additionally, SOR was associated with general anxiety/fear and DBMP; general anxiety/fear was linked to poor oral health, irregular attendance, and DBMP. This model provides a comprehensive view of the relationships between person factors (e.g., general anxiety/fear, SOR, and DFA) and oral health behaviors and outcomes. This is valuable in order to highlight connections between constructs that may be targeted in the development of new interventions to improve oral health behaviors and outcomes as well as the experience of DFA.
Keywords. dental anxiety; dental fear; oral health behaviors; general anxiety; sensory over-responsivity; dental behavior management problems
Fang, Y., Baker, N. A., Dole, J., & Roll, S. C. (2022). Quality of carpal tunnel syndrome patient education handouts available on the Internet: A systematic analysis of content and design. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 103(2), 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.08.010 Show abstract
Objective. To evaluate the quality of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patient education handouts and identify the best resources for patients and clinicians.
Design. A document content analysis of handouts identified through a systematic internet search using 8 search terms on Google and Bing and a hand search of professional association websites.
Setting. Not Applicable.
Participants. Documents were identified from the top 50 search results across 16 individual searches. Included documents provided general patient education for CTS; descriptive websites, videos, and research studies were excluded.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. Content analysis was conducted using the Information Score (IS) tool to evaluate completeness of information [0%-100%], and misleading treatment recommendations were identified. Design analysis was conducted using the Patient Material Assessment Tool (PEMAT-P) [0-100%] and two widely-used readability formulas, Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Using these results, all handouts were rated with a summative 12-point scale.
Results. Of 805 unique search results, we included 56 CTS handouts. The average IS was 74.6% ± 17.9%. 78.6% of the handouts mentioned non-evidence-based treatment recommendations. The average PEMAT-P score was 70.2% ± 10.9% and the average readability grade level was 7.7 ± 1.7. Only 3 handouts were identified as high quality based on the 12-point summative scores, while 22 handouts had mixed quality and 17 handouts had low quality on both content and design.
Conclusions. Findings of this study suggest a lack of high-quality and easily understandable CTS patient education handouts. Most handouts contained unreliable treatment information. Improvements are needed to ensure patients’ ability to understand and manage this condition.
Keywords. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Health Literacy; Patient Education
Pozzi, F., Sousa, C. O., Plummer, H. A., Andrade, B., Awokuse, D., Kono, N., Mack, W. J., Roll, S. C., & Michener, L. A. (2022). Development of shoulder pain with job-related repetitive load: mechanisms of tendon pathology and anxiety. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 31(2), 225-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.09.007 Show abstract
Background. The paucity of longitudinal clinical studies limits our understanding of the development of shoulder pain with repetitive shoulder tasks, and its association with underlying mind and body mechanisms. Tendon thickening characterizes painful shoulder supraspinatus tendinopathy, and the perception of pain can be affected by the presence of psychological factors such as anxiety and depression. This study determined the incidence of shoulder pain in novice individuals exposed to repetitive shoulder tasks, and the associated change in outcomes of supraspinatus tendon morphology and measures of anxiety and depression.
Methods. We recruited dental hygiene (DH) students (N = 45, novice and exposed to shoulder repetitive tasks) and occupational therapy (OT) students (N = 52, novice, but not exposed to shoulder repetitive tasks), following them over their first year of training. We measured shoulder pain, supraspinatus morphology via ultrasound, psychosocial distress via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We compared the incidence of shoulder pain (defined as a change of visual analog pain scale greater than minimal clinically important difference) between DH and OT students using Fisher’s exact test. We used mixed-effects models to longitudinally compare the change in outcomes between three groups: DH students that develop and did not develop shoulder pain, and OT students.
Results. The incidence of shoulder pain is higher in DH students [relative risk = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 11.4]. After one year, DH students with pain had the greatest thickening of the supraspinatus (0.7mm, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.9). The change in supraspinatus thickness of DH students with pain was greater than both DH students with no pain (0.4mm, 95%CI: 0.1, 0.8) and OT students (0.9mm, 95%CI: 0.5, 1.2). Anxiety score increased 3.8 points (95%CI: 1.6, 5.1) in DH students with pain, and 43% of DH students with pain had abnormal anxiety score at one-year (relative risk = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.0; 8.6).
Conclusion. Our results provide support for the theoretical model of repetitive load as a mechanism of tendinopathy. The supraspinatus tendon thickens in the presence of repetitive tasks, and thickens the most in those who develop shoulder pain. Concurrently, anxiety develops with shoulder pain, indicating a potential maladaptive central mechanism that may impact the perception of pain.
Keywords. supraspinatus; tendinopathy; anxiety; pain; shoulder
Kellner, P., Kwon, J., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2022). Neurodevelopmental outcomes following preterm birth and the association with postmenstrual age at discharge. American Journal of Perinatology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1733-2690 Show abstract
Objective. This study aimed to (1) define the prevalence of motor, cognitive, and language delays in preterm infants born <32 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA); and (2) identify the relationship between the timing of discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and neurodevelopmental outcome in early childhood.
Study Design. This retrospective study of 172 preterm infants born <32 weeks EGA and hospitalized in a level-IV NICU captured medical factors, including timing of discharge, from the NICU stay. Standardized developmental testing at 1 to 2 years corrected age was conducted in the newborn follow-up clinic.
Results. At 1 to 2 years corrected age, the sample had an average Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) cognitive composite score of 91.5 ± 17.4, language composite score of 84.5 ± 17.3, and motor composite score of 88.9 ± 18.4. Lower EGA at birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and oxygen requirement for >28 days were independently associated with higher postmenstrual age (PMA) at NICU discharge. Higher PMA at discharge was associated with poorer cognitive outcome [p < 0.001, β = −1.1 (−1.6, −0.7)], poorer language outcome [p = 0.049, β = −0.5 (−0.9, −0.003)], and poorer motor outcome [p <0.001, β = −1.0 (−1.5, −0.5)]. For every additional week of hospitalization, scores were an average of 1.1 points lower in cognitive, 1.0 point lower in motor, and 0.5 points lower in language domains of the Bayley-III assessment.
Conclusion. Poorer cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were associated with longer hospitalization, even after controlling for medical risk factors known to be associated with poorer outcome. This provides further evidence for the potential role of the environment in impacting developmental outcomes of infants hospitalized in the NICU.
Keywords. hospitalization; neonatal intensive care unit; length of stay; postmenstrual age; outcomes; child development; risk factors; environment
Cogan, A. M., Bender Pape, T. L., Yeaw, J., DeKoven, M., Anupindi, R., & Jordan, N. (2022). Health care resource utilization and costs for adults with mild traumatic brain injury with chronic vestibular impairment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 103(1), 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.08.017 Show abstract
Objective. To quantify the economic burden of all-cause health care resource utilization (HCRU) among adults with and without chronic vestibular impairment (CVI) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
Design. Retrospective matched cohort study.
Setting. IQVIA Integrated Data Warehouse.
Participants. People with mTBI+CVI (n=20,441) matched on baseline age, sex, year of mTBI event, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score to people with mTBI only (n=20,441) (N=40,882).
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. All-cause health HCRU and costs at 12 and 24 months post mTBI diagnosis.
Results. People with mTBI+CVI had significantly higher all-cause HCRU and costs at both time points than those with mTBI only. Multivariable regression analysis showed that, when controlling for baseline variables, costs of care were 1.5 times higher for mTBI+CVI than mTBI only.
Conclusions. People who developed CVI after mTBI had greater overall HCRU and costs for up to 2 years after the injury event compared with people who did not develop CVI after controlling for age, sex, region, and CCI score. Further research on access to follow-up services and effectiveness of interventions to address CVI is warranted.
Keywords. Brain concussion; Costs and cost analysis; Health care costs; Postural balance; Rehabilitation
Badenoch, J. B., Rengasamy, E. R., Watson, C., Jansen, K., Chakraborty, S., Sundaram, R. D., Hafeez, D., Burchill, E., Saini, A., Thomas, L., Cross, B., Hunt, C. K., Conti, I., Ralovska, S., Hussain, Z., Butler, M., Pollak, T. A., Koychev, I., Michael, B. D., Holling, H., Nicholson, T. R., Rogers, J. P., & Rooney, A. G. (2022). Persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Communications, 4(1), fcab297. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab297 Show abstract
The nature and extent of persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19 are not established. To help inform mental health service planning in the pandemic recovery phase, we systematically determined the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in survivors of COVID-19. For this pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO ID CRD42021239750), we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO to 20 February 2021, plus our own curated database. We included peer-reviewed studies reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms at post-acute or later time-points after COVID-19 infection and in control groups where available. For each study, a minimum of two authors extracted summary data. For each symptom, we calculated a pooled prevalence using generalized linear mixed models. Heterogeneity was measured with I2. Subgroup analyses were conducted for COVID-19 hospitalization, severity and duration of follow-up. From 2844 unique titles, we included 51 studies (n = 18 917 patients). The mean duration of follow-up after COVID-19 was 77 days (range 14–182 days). Study quality was most commonly moderate. The most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptom was sleep disturbance [pooled prevalence = 27.4% (95% confidence interval 21.4–34.4%)], followed by fatigue [24.4% (17.5–32.9%)], objective cognitive impairment [20.2% (10.3–35.7%)], anxiety [19.1% (13.3–26.8%)] and post-traumatic stress [15.7% (9.9–24.1%)]. Only two studies reported symptoms in control groups, both reporting higher frequencies in COVID-19 survivors versus controls. Between-study heterogeneity was high (I2 = 79.6–98.6%). There was little or no evidence of differential symptom prevalence based on hospitalization status, severity or follow-up duration. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and persistent after recovery from COVID-19. The literature on longer-term consequences is still maturing but indicates a particularly high prevalence of insomnia, fatigue, cognitive impairment and anxiety disorders in the first 6 months after infection.
Keywords. COVID-19, neuropsychiatry, Long COVID, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, chronic COVID syndrome
Yao, B., & Roll, S. C. (2022). An ultrasound study of the mobility of the median nerve during composite finger movement in the healthy young wrist. Muscle and Nerve, 65(1), 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.27437 Show abstract
Introduction/Aims. There is a lack of consensus regarding median nerve movement in the carpal tunnel during composite finger flexion in healthy individuals. This study aimed to examine the amount and direction of median nerve movement and differentiate nerve mobility between dominant and non-dominant sides in a large healthy young adult cohort.
Methods. Sonographic videos of the median nerve during composite finger motion from extension to full flexion were analyzed in 197 participants without median nerve pathology. Displacement of the nerve’s centroid was calculated based on a change in the relative location of the nerve. Longitudinal nerve sliding was categorized as none, independently from the tendons, or with the tendons.
Results. In short axis, median nerves moved within 1 mm vertically and 3 mm horizontally; no direction was predominant. About half of the nerves (52.5%) slid independently while 26.9% slid with the tendons; 21.3% did not slide at all. On the non-dominant side, median nerves that slid with the tendons had a larger absolute vertical displacement than nerves that slid independently or did not slide at all (p<0.01). Nerves on the dominant side moved in a radial direction more frequently than on the non-dominant side (p=0.02).
Discussion. Transverse nerve movement during composite finger flexion in healthy individuals varies widely with no clear pattern in the direction of transverse movement or amount of longitudinal sliding. These data provide a foundation for future research to better understand the biomechanical contribution of nerve movement to median nerve pathologies.
Liew, S., Zavaliangos‐Petropulu, A., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Hayward, K. S., Lohse, K. R., Juliano, J. M., Assogna, F., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dimyan, M. A., Dula, A. N., Ermer, E., Etherton, M. R., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hadidchi, S., Holguin, J. A., Hwang, D. H., Jung, S., Kautz, S. A., Khlif, M. S., Khoshab, N., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Piras, F., Ramos‐Murguialday, A., Richard, G., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Rondina, J. M., Rost, N. S., Sanossian, N., Schweighofer, N., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Vecchio, D., Villringer, A., Ward, N. S., Werden, E., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Cramer, S. C., & Thompson, P. M. (2022). The ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group: Big data neuroimaging to study brain–behavior relationships after stroke. Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25015 Show abstract
The goal of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta‐Analysis (ENIGMA) Stroke Recovery working group is to understand brain and behavior relationships using well‐powered meta‐ and mega‐analytic approaches. ENIGMA Stroke Recovery has data from over 2,100 stroke patients collected across 39 research studies and 10 countries around the world, comprising the largest multisite retrospective stroke data collaboration to date. This article outlines the efforts taken by the ENIGMA Stroke Recovery working group to develop neuroinformatics protocols and methods to manage multisite stroke brain magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral and demographics data. Specifically, the processes for scalable data intake and preprocessing, multisite data harmonization, and large‐scale stroke lesion analysis are described, and challenges unique to this type of big data collaboration in stroke research are discussed. Finally, future directions and limitations, as well as recommendations for improved data harmonization through prospective data collection and data management, are provided.
Zavaliangos‐Petropulu, A., Tubi, M. A., Haddad, E., Zhu, A., Braskie, M. N., Jahanshad, N., Thompson, P. M., & Liew, S. (2022). Testing a convolutional neural network‐based hippocampal segmentation method in a stroke population. Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25210 Show abstract
As stroke mortality rates decrease, there has been a surge of effort to study poststroke dementia (PSD) to improve long‐term quality of life for stroke survivors. Hippocampal volume may be an important neuroimaging biomarker in poststroke dementia, as it has been associated with many other forms of dementia. However, studying hippocampal volume using MRI requires hippocampal segmentation. Advances in automated segmentation methods have allowed for studying the hippocampus on a large scale, which is important for robust results in the heterogeneous stroke population. However, most of these automated methods use a single atlas‐based approach and may fail in the presence of severe structural abnormalities common in stroke. Hippodeep, a new convolutional neural network‐based hippocampal segmentation method, does not rely solely on a single atlas‐based approach and thus may be better suited for stroke populations. Here, we compared quality control and the accuracy of segmentations generated by Hippodeep and two well‐accepted hippocampal segmentation methods on stroke MRIs (FreeSurfer 6.0 whole hippocampus and FreeSurfer 6.0 sum of hippocampal subfields). Quality control was performed using a stringent protocol for visual inspection of the segmentations, and accuracy was measured as volumetric correlation with manual segmentations. Hippodeep performed significantly better than both FreeSurfer methods in terms of quality control. All three automated segmentation methods had good correlation with manual segmentations and no one method was significantly more correlated than the others. Overall, this study suggests that both Hippodeep and FreeSurfer may be useful for hippocampal segmentation in stroke rehabilitation research, but Hippodeep may be more robust to stroke lesion anatomy.
Keywords. convolutional neural network, hippocampus, image segmentation, lesion, MRI, stroke
Blanche, E. I., Reinoso, G., & Kiefer, D. B. (2021). The Structured Observations of Sensory Integration — Motor (SOSI-M): Administration manual. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.
Kingsley, K. L. (2021). Best practices in supporting social, emotional, and self-regulation skills. In G. F. Clark & S. Parks (Eds.), Best practices for occupational therapy in early childhood (pp. 291-299). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press. Full text
Chernikova, M. A., Flores, G. D., Kilroy, E., Labus, J. S., Mayer, E. A., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2021). The brain-gut-microbiome system: Pathways and implications for autism spectrum disorder. Nutrients, 13(12), 4497. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124497 Show abstract
Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of the most prevalent physiological symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of largely preclinical research suggests that dysbiotic gut microbiota may modulate brain function and social behavior, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these relationships and how they may influence the pathogenesis or severity of ASD. While various genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in ASD, this review aims to provide an overview of studies elucidating the mechanisms by which gut microbiota, associated metabolites, and the brain interact to influence behavior and ASD development, in at least a subgroup of individuals with gastrointestinal problems. Specifically, we review the brain-gut-microbiome system and discuss findings from current animal and human studies as they relate to social-behavioral and neurological impairments in ASD, microbiota-targeted therapies (i.e., probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation) in ASD, and how microbiota may influence the brain at molecular, structural, and functional levels, with a particular interest in social and emotion-related brain networks. A deeper understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior interactions has the potential to inform new therapies aimed at modulating this system and alleviating both behavioral and physiological symptomatology in individuals with ASD.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder; brain-gut-microbiome system; gut-brain axis; microbiome; probiotics; tryptophan pathway
Conforto, A. B., Machado, A. G., Ribeiro, N. H., Plow, E. B., Liew, S.-L., da Costa Leite, C., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Menezes, I., dos Anjos, S. M., Luccas, R., Hunter Peckham, P., & Cohen, L. G. (2021). Repetitive peripheral sensory stimulation as an add-on intervention for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: A randomized trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 35(12), 1059-1064. https://doi.org/10.1177/15459683211046259 Show abstract
Introduction. Repetitive peripheral sensory stimulation (RPSS) followed by 4-hour task-specific training (TST) improves upper limb motor function in subjects with stroke who experience moderate to severe motor upper limb impairments. Here, we compared effects of RPSS vs sham followed by a shorter duration of training in subjects with moderate to severe motor impairments in the chronic phase after stroke.
Methods. This single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial compared effects of 18 sessions of either 1.5 h of active RPSS or sham followed by a supervised session that included 45 min of TST of the paretic upper limb. In both groups, subjects were instructed to perform functional tasks at home, without supervision. The primary outcome measure was the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) after 6 weeks of treatment. Grasp and pinch strength were secondary outcomes.
Results. In intention-to-treat analysis, WMFT improved significantly in both active and sham groups at 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Grasp strength improved significantly in the active, but not in the sham group, at 3 and 6 weeks. Pinch strength improved significantly in both groups at 3 weeks, and only in the active group at 6 weeks.
Conclusions. The between-group difference in changes in WMFT was not statistically significant. Despite the short duration of supervised treatment, WMFT improved significantly in subjects treated with RPSS or sham. These findings are relevant to settings that impose constraints in duration of direct contact between therapists and patients. In addition, RPSS led to significant gains in hand strength.
Whitehill, L., Smith, J., Colditz, G., Le, T., Kellner, P., & Pineda, R. (2021). Socio-demographic factors related to parent engagement in the NICU and the impact of the SENSE program. Early Human Development, 163, 105486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105486 Show abstract
Background. Early parent engagement in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is important for both parent and infant mental health and for improving developmental outcomes. It remains unclear how different programs, such as the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program, may empower parents from various socio-demographic groups to engage in the NICU. An improved understanding could aid in individualizing interventions for those at the highest risk for health disparities.
Aims. This exploratory study, which was part of a larger study, sought to explore 1) socio-demographic factors related to parent presence and engagement in the NICU and 2) if the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program related to increased parent presence and engagement among different socio-demographic groups.
Methods. Seventy mother-infant dyads (≤ 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to SENSE programming (parent education and age-appropriate, positive sensory interventions for parents to conduct with their infants every day of hospitalization) or standard care after admission to the NICU. The amount of parent presence and participation in sensory activities was tracked using bedside logs, nursing records, and research team documentation.
Results. Being married (p=0.048; p=0.01), having private insurance (p<0.001; p=0.01), and having fewer children (p=0.004; p=0.03) related to more parent presence and engagement. Parents who were Black had less presence and engagement in the NICU (p=.04; p=0.02). Participation in the SENSE program was related to more parent presence and engagement among younger mothers (p=.002; p=<0.001) and among parents living farther distances from the hospital (p<0.001; p=0.004).
Conclusion. Programming, such as SENSE, can improve engagement among high-risk groups.
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Scholten, J., Bender Pape, T., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Psychometric properties and sex differences on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation subscale (M2PI) in veterans with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(11), 2193-2200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.06.003 Show abstract
Objective. To evaluate the structural validity of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation Index (M2PI) in a sample of veterans and to assess whether the tool functioned similarly for male and female veterans.
Design. Rasch analysis of M2PI records from the National Veterans Traumatic Brain Injury Health Registry database from 2012-2018.
Setting. National VA Polytrauma System of Care outpatient settings.
Participants. Veterans with a clinically confirmed history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) (N=6065; 94% male).
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. M2PI, a 5-point Likert-type scale with 8 items. For this analysis, the 2 employment items were treated individually for a total of 9 items.
Results. The employment items misfit the Rasch Measurement model (paid employment mean square [MnSq]=1.40; other employment MnSq=1.34) and were removed from subsequent iterations. The final model had eigenvalue 1.87 on the first contrast, suggesting unidimensionality of the remaining 7 items. Item order from least to most participation restriction was transportation, self-care, residence management, financial management, initiation, leisure, and social contact. Wright's person separation reliability for nonnormal distributions was 0.93, indicating appropriateness of M2PI for making individual-level treatment decisions. Mean person measure was −0.92±1.34 logits, suggesting that participants did not report restrictions on most items (item mean=0 logits). A total of 3.8% of the sample had the minimum score (no impairment on all items), and 0.2% had the maximum score. Four items had different item calibrations (≥0.25 logits) for female compared with male veterans, but the hierarchy of items was unchanged when the female sample was examined separately.
Conclusions. These findings suggest that, although employment is a poor indicator of participation restrictions among veterans with TBI, the M2PI is unidimensional. Because of subtle differences in scale function between male and female participants, M2PI should be part of a more thorough clinical interview about participation strengths and restrictions.
Keywords. Brain injuries, traumatic; Community participation; Psychometrics; Rehabilitation; Veterans
Baker, N. A., Dole, J., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Meta-synthesis of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment options: Developing consolidated clinical treatment recommendations to improve practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(11), 2261-2268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.03.034 Show abstract
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treatment contains ambiguities across and within disciplines. This meta-synthesis of professional guidelines consolidates clinical treatment recommendations for CTS treatment and classifies them by strength of evidence. We conducted a search of Google, Google Scholar, and PubMed for published clinical treatment recommendations for CTS. A systematic hand search was completed to identify additional professional organizations with published recommendations. We extracted any mentioned treatment from all sources but developed our final consolidated clinical treatment recommendations only from select rigorous guidelines based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria for trustworthy guidelines. We translated rating systems of the primary guidelines into a universal rating system to classify recommendations for consolidated clinical treatment recommendations. Our search yielded 30 sources that mentioned a total of 55 CTS treatments. Six of the sources met the IOM inclusion criteria. These primary guidelines provided recommendations for 46 of the 55 treatments, which were consolidated into 12 broad treatment categories. Surgery, positioning, and steroids were strongly supported. Conservative treatments provided by rehabilitation professionals were conditionally supported. Pharmaceuticals, supplements, and alternative treatments were not generally supported. CTS is a complex condition with a wide variety of treatments provided by a multitude of disciplines. Our consolidated clinical treatment recommendations offer a comprehensive outline of available treatments for CTS and contributes to the process of developing best practices for its treatment.
Keywords. Carpal tunnel syndrome; Guideline; Rehabilitation; Systematic review
Donnelly, M. R., Reinberg, R., Ito, K. L., Saldana, D., Neureither, M., Schmiesing, A., Jahng, E., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Virtual reality for the treatment of anxiety disorders: A scoping review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(6), 7506205040. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.046169 Show abstract
Importance. Virtual reality in head-mounted displays (HMD-VR) may be a valuable tool in occupational therapy to address anxiety. Findings from the virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) literature may facilitate translation of HMD-VR to occupational therapy psychosocial practice.
Objective. To explore how HMD-VR has been used to treat anxiety through VRET and could be translated to occupational therapy.
Data Sources. We searched seven electronic databases for articles published between 2000 and 2020: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Search terms included HMD-VR constructs, products, and therapy concepts.
Study Selection and Data Collection. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to report studies implementing VRET to treat anxiety. At least two reviewers assessed each citation, and a third resolved disagreements. Articles were included if they were in English, reported experimental data, and used HMD-VR. Letters, commentaries, book chapters, technical descriptions, theoretical papers, conference proceedings (≤4 pages), and reviews were excluded.
Findings. Twenty-eight studies used HMD-VR to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 3), specific phobias (n = 19), and performance-based social anxiety (n = 6); protocols and levels of evidence varied (randomized controlled trials, n = 11; controlled trials without randomization, n = 6; case–control or cohort studies, n = 11). Qualitative examination indicates HMD-VR is an effective treatment tool.
Conclusions and Relevance. HMD-VR can be a valuable tool for occupational therapy to simulate environments where clients with anxiety disorders participate. Eliciting presence through multisensory features and body representation may enhance outcomes.
Awada, M., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. (2021). Associations among home indoor environmental quality factors and worker health while working from home during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Buildings and Cities, 2(4), 041001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052822 Show abstract
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 virus forced office workers to conduct their daily work activities from home over an extended period. Given this unique situation, an opportunity emerged to study the satisfaction of office workers with indoor environmental quality (IEQ) factors of their houses where work activities took place and associate these factors with mental and physical health. We designed and administered a questionnaire that was open for 45 days during the COVID-19 pandemic and received valid data from 988 respondents. The results show that low satisfaction with natural lighting, glare and humidity predicted eye related symptoms, while low satisfaction with noise was a strong predictor of fatigue or tiredness, headaches or migraines, anxiety, and depression or sadness. Nose and throat related symptoms and skin related symptoms were only uniquely predicted by low satisfaction with humidity. Low satisfaction with glare uniquely predicted an increase in musculoskeletal discomfort. Symptoms related to mental stress, rumination or worry were predicted by low satisfaction with air quality and noise. Finally, low satisfaction with noise and indoor temperature predicted the prevalence of symptoms related to trouble concentrating, maintaining attention or focus. Workers with higher income were more satisfied with humidity, air quality and indoor temperature and had better overall mental health. Older individuals had increased satisfaction with natural lighting, humidity, air quality, noise, and indoor temperature. Findings from this study can inform future design practices that focus on hybrid home-work environments by highlighting the impact of IEQ factors on occupant well-being.
Liew, S.-L., Zavaliangos-Petropulu, A., Schweighofer, N., Jahanshad, N., Lang, C. E., Lohse, K. R., Banaj, N., Barisano, G., Baugh, L. A., Bhattacharya, A. K., Bigjahan, B., Borich, M. R., Boyd, L. A., Brodtmann, A., Buetefisch, C. M., Byblow, W. D., Cassidy, J. M., Charalambous, C. C., Ciullo, V., Conforto, A. B., Craddock, R. C., Dula, A. N., Egorova, N., Feng, W., Fercho, K. A., Gregory, C. M., Hanlon, C. A., Hayward, K. S., Holguin, J. A., Hordacre, B., Hwang, D. H., Kautz, S. A., Salah Khlif, M., Kim, B., Kim, H., Kuceyeski, A., Lo, B., Liu, J., Lin, D., Lotze, M., MacIntosh, B. J., Margetis, J. L., Mohamed, F. B., Nordvik, J. E., Petoe, M. A., Piras, F., Raju, S., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Revill, K. P., Roberts, P., Robertson, A. D., Schambra, H. M., Seo, N. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Soekadar, S. R., Spalletta, G., Stinear, C. M., Suri, A., Tang, W. K., Thielman, G. T., Thijs, V. N., Vecchio, D., Ward, N. S., Westlye, L. T., Winstein, C. J., Wittenberg, G. F., Wong, K. A., Yu, C., Wolf, S. L., Cramer, S. C., Thompson, P. M., & ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group. (2021). Smaller spared subcortical nuclei are associated with worse post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes in 28 cohorts worldwide. Brain Communications, 3(4), fcab254. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab254 Show abstract
Up to two-thirds of stroke survivors experience persistent sensorimotor impairments. Recovery relies on the integrity of spared brain areas to compensate for damaged tissue. Deep grey matter structures play a critical role in the control and regulation of sensorimotor circuits. The goal of this work is to identify associations between volumes of spared subcortical nuclei and sensorimotor behaviour at different timepoints after stroke. We pooled high-resolution T1-weighted MRI brain scans and behavioural data in 828 individuals with unilateral stroke from 28 cohorts worldwide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear mixed-effects models related post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour to non-lesioned subcortical volumes (Bonferroni-corrected, P < 0.004). We tested subacute (≤90 days) and chronic (≥180 days) stroke subgroups separately, with exploratory analyses in early stroke (≤21 days) and across all time. Sub-analyses in chronic stroke were also performed based on class of sensorimotor deficits (impairment, activity limitations) and side of lesioned hemisphere. Worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with a smaller ipsilesional thalamic volume in both early (n = 179; d = 0.68) and subacute (n = 274, d = 0.46) stroke. In chronic stroke (n = 404), worse sensorimotor behaviour was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.52) and nucleus accumbens (d = 0.39) volumes, and a larger ipsilesional lateral ventricle (d = −0.42). Worse chronic sensorimotor impairment specifically (measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment; n = 256) was associated with smaller ipsilesional putamen (d = 0.72) and larger lateral ventricle (d = −0.41) volumes, while several measures of activity limitations (n = 116) showed no significant relationships. In the full cohort across all time (n = 828), sensorimotor behaviour was associated with the volumes of the ipsilesional nucleus accumbens (d = 0.23), putamen (d = 0.33), thalamus (d = 0.33) and lateral ventricle (d = −0.23). We demonstrate significant relationships between post-stroke sensorimotor behaviour and reduced volumes of deep grey matter structures that were spared by stroke, which differ by time and class of sensorimotor measure. These findings provide additional insight into how different cortico-thalamo-striatal circuits support post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes.
Pineda, R. G., Lisle, J., Ferrara, L., Knudsen, K., Kumar, R., & Fernandez-Fernandez, A. (2021). Neonatal therapy staffing in the United States and relationships to NICU type and location, level of acuity, and population factors. American Journal of Perinatology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1678-0002 Show abstract
Objectives. To 1) estimate the total pool of neonatal therapists and the average number represented in each US-based NICU, and 2) investigate the relationships between the number and type of neonatal therapy team members to NICU/hospital, population, and therapy factors.
Study Design. This study used several methods of data collection (surveys, phone calls, website searches) that were combined to establish a comprehensive list of factors across each NICU in the US.
Results. We estimate 2333 neonatal therapy FTEs, with 4232 neonatal therapists covering those FTEs in the US. Among 564 NICUs, 432 (76%) had a dedicated therapy team, 103 (18%) had PRN therapy coverage only, and 35 (6%) had no neonatal therapy team. Having a dedicated therapy team was more likely in level IV (n=112; 97%) and III (n=269; 83%) NICUs compared to level II NICUs (n=51; 42%) (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was related to having more NICU beds (p<0.001), being part of a free-standing children’s hospital or children’s hospital within a hospital (p<0.001), and being part of an academic medical center or community hospital (p<0.001). Having a dedicated therapy team was more common in the Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and West (p=0.001), but was not related to the proportion of the community living in poverty or belonging to racial/ethnic minorities (p>0.05). There was an average of 17 beds per neonatal therapy FTE, a good marker of therapy coverage based on NICU size. Three-hundred US-based NICUs (22%) had at least one Certified Neonatal Therapist (CNT) in early 2020, with CNT presence being more likely in higher acuity NICUs (59% of Level IV NICUs had at least one CNT).
Conclusions. Understanding the composition of neonatal therapy teams at different hospitals across the US can drive change to expand neonatal therapy aimed at optimizing outcomes of high-risk families.
Pyatak, E. A., Hernandez, R., Pham, L., Mehdiyeva, K., Schneider, S., Peters, A., Ruelas, V., Crandall, J., Lee, P.-J., Jin, H., Hoogendoorn, C. J., Crespo-Ramos, G., Mendez-Rodriguez, H., Harmel, M., Walker, M., Serafin-Dokhan, S., Gonzalez, J. S., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2021). Function and emotion in everyday life with type 1 diabetes (FEEL-T1D): A fully remote intensive longitudinal study of blood glucose, function, and emotional well-being in adults with type 1 diabetes. JMIR Research Protocols, 10(10), e30901. https://doi.org/10.2196/30901 Show abstract
Background. While short-term blood glucose (BG) levels and variability are thought to underlie diminished function and emotional well-being in people with T1D, these relationships are poorly understood. The Function and Emotion in Everyday Life with T1D (FEEL-T1D) study focuses on investigating these short-term dynamic relationships among BG, function, and emotional well-being in adults with T1D.
Objective. To present the FEEL-T1D study design, methods, and study progress to date, including adaptations necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic to implement the study fully remotely.
Methods. The FEEL-T1D study will recruit 200 adults 18-75 years old with T1D. Data collection includes a comprehensive survey battery, along with 14 days of intensive longitudinal data using blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), ecological momentary assessments (EMA), ambulatory cognitive tasks, and accelerometers. All study procedures are conducted remotely, through mailing study equipment and using videoconferencing for study visits.
Results. To date, after 12 months of recruitment, 124 participants have enrolled in the FEEL-T1D study. Over 80% have provided concurrent CGM, EMA, and accelerometer data for at least 10 of the 14 days of data collection, and nearly 90% of EMA surveys have been completed, with minimal missing data.
Conclusions. Thus far, our reconfiguration of the FEEL-T1D protocol to be implemented remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic has been a success. The FEEL-T1D study will elucidate the dynamic relationships between blood glucose, emotional well-being, cognitive function and participation in daily activities. In doing so, it will pave the way for innovative just-in-time interventions and produce actionable insights to facilitate tailoring of diabetes treatment to optimize function and well-being among individuals with T1D.
Pacheco, M., Agner, J. L., Myers, T. K., Franco, J., Barile, J. P., Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, J., & Baldwin, J. A. (2021). Health outcomes and healthcare utilization of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders living with HIV in Hawai‘i: A mixed-methods study. Ethnicity & Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2021.1990219 Show abstract
Objectives. Past research shows mixed outcomes in terms of HIV-related disparities among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). This study investigates HIV-related disparities among NHOPI living with HIV in Hawai‘i.
Design. An explanatory sequential design was utilized. The quantitative portion analyzed survey data from a statewide Ryan White Needs Assessment (N = 398) to examine the differences in viral suppression and satisfaction with care between NHOPI and other ethnic groups. Utilizing the behavioral model for vulnerable populations (BMVP), semi-structured interviews (N = 16) were conducted next to explain what factors play a role in satisfaction with care and viral suppression when it comes to NHOPI living with HIV in Hawai‘i.
Results. Among the 398 participants 13% were NHOPI. NHOPI were more likely to have a viral load of ≥10,000 copies/mL compared to those who didn’t identify as NHOPI. However, there were no significant differences for other viral load levels (20–199 or 200–9999), and only 20 participants (5.2%) had a viral load of 10,000 copies/mL or more. No significant ethnic differences were found in satisfaction with medical care. In the qualitative phase, factors from all domains of the BMVP were represented within the four themes identified: (1) Care coordination is essential — with AIDs service organizations taking the lead; (2) HIV care, as well as overall health, is defined by the effectiveness of medication; (3) Initial diagnosis is a critical moment for intervention; and (4) Aspects of culture are intangible.
Conclusion. Among NHOPI in Hawai‘i who are engaged in case management, there appears to be no substantial disparities in either viral load or satisfaction with care compared to other ethnic groups. Despite this, qualitative findings provide insights on how ethnicity and culture may still be playing a role. Addressing all domains of the BMVP is crucial to addressing this.
Keywords. Native Hawaiian; Pacific Islander; HIV; AIDS; healthcare utilization; HIV care continuum; viral suppression; culturally-relevant care; culture and healthcare
Hernandez, R., Pyatak, E. A., Vigen, C. L., Jin, H., Schneider, S., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Understanding worker well-being relative to high-workload and recovery activities across a whole day: Pilot testing an ecological momentary assessment technique. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19), 10354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910354 Show abstract
Occupational health and safety is experiencing a paradigm shift from focusing only on health at the workplace toward a holistic approach and worker well-being framework that considers both work and non-work factors. Aligned with this shift, the purpose of this pilot study was to examine how, within a person, frequencies of high-workload and recovery activities from both work and non-work periods were associated with same day well-being measures. We analyzed data on 45 workers with type 1 diabetes from whom we collected activity data 5–6 times daily over 14 days. More frequent engagement in high-workload activities was associated with lower well-being on multiple measures including higher stress. Conversely, greater recovery activity frequency was mostly associated with higher well-being indicated by lower stress and higher positive affect. Overall, our results provide preliminary validity evidence for measures of high-workload and recovery activity exposure covering both work and non-work periods that can inform and support evaluations of worker well-being.
Keywords. workload; recovery; ecological momentary assessment; type 1 diabetes; workweek; healthy work design and well-being; future of work
Fukumura, Y. E., Schott, J. M., Lucas, G. M., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Negotiating time and space when working from home: Experiences during COVID-19. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 41(4), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1177/15394492211033830 Show abstract
Stay-at-home mandates following the COVID-19 pandemic increased work from home (WFH). While WFH offers many benefits, navigating work in nontraditional contexts can be a challenge. The objective of this study was to explore the benefits and challenges of WFH during COVID-19 to identify supports and resources necessary. Comments from two free-response questions on a survey regarding experiences of WFH (N = 648, N = 366) were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Four themes emerged: time use, considerations of working in the home space, intersections between work-life and home-life, and temporality of WFH as situated within a pandemic. Across all themes were concerns related to participation in both work and home roles, work performance, and well-being. Findings highlight the importance of support during times of disruption of occupational patterns, roles, and routines. Despite challenges, many individuals hoped to continue WFH. Organizations should consider the complex intersections of work-life and home-life to develop supportive policies and resources.
Keywords. work; survey; context; health; occupational balance
Pineda, R., Smith, J., Roussin, J., Wallendorf, M., Kellner, P., & Colditz, G. (2021). Randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of consistent, developmentally-appropriate, and evidence-based multisensory exposures in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 41, 2449–2462. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-01078-7 Show abstract
Objective. Evaluate the effect of a manualized multisensory program, applied across NICU hospitalization, on infant and parent outcomes.
Study design. Seventy parent-infant dyads (born ≤32 weeks gestation) in a Level IV NICU were randomized at birth to the multisensory program or standard-of-care. Parents in the multisensory group administered prespecified amounts of age-appropriate, evidence-based sensory interventions to their infants each day during NICU hospitalization according to the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program.
Results. Infants who received the SENSE program had more lethargy on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) (p = 0.05), even after controlling for medical and social risk (p = 0.043), and had higher Communication scores on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (p = 0.04) at 1-year corrected age, but this relationship failed to reach significance after controlling for medical and social risk (p = 0.12).
Conclusion. The SENSE program shows promise for improving outcomes, but more research with larger sample sizes is needed.
Angell, A. M., Deavenport-Saman, A., Yin, L., Zou, B., Bai, C., Varma, D., & Solomon, O. (2021). Sex differences in co-occurring conditions among autistic children and youth in Florida: A retrospective cohort study (2012–2019). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(10), 3759–3765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04841-5 Show abstract
Autistic children have a high prevalence of co-occurring mental health, developmental/behavioral, and medical conditions, but research on sex/gender differences has been mixed. We used Florida healthcare claims data to characterize sex differences (female/male) in co-occurring conditions among autistic children ages 1–21 (N = 83,500). After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, urbanicity, and insurance, autistic girls had significantly higher odds of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and sleep disorders compared to autistic boys. Autistic girls had significantly lower odds of ADHD. The findings contribute to the growing body of research on the unique healthcare needs of autistic girls.
Keywords. Autism spectrum disorder, Co-occurring condition, Sex, Gender, Healthcare claims, Girls
Roll, S. C., Lucas, G. M., & Becerik-Gerber, B. (2021). Authors’ response to “Work from home (WFH) during COVID-19: Is virtual reality (VR) a new solution to new problems?”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(10), e757-e758. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002340
Fields, B., Rodakowski, J., Jewell, V. D., Arthanat, S., Park, M., Verrier Piersol, C., Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Womack, J., & Mroz, T. M. (2021). Unpaid caregiving and aging in place in the United States: Advancing the value of occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(5), 7505347010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.044735 Show abstract
Unpaid caregivers are often expected to help family members or friends overcome activity limitations and participation restrictions to successfully age in place. Caregivers assume multiple responsibilities, such as managing their own physical and psychosocial needs and navigating a complex health care system, and many feel ill equipped to fulfill the necessary health care responsibilities for their care recipients. Underprepared caregivers may cause poor outcomes for care recipients. Federal and state policy proposals call attention to the need to better support caregivers, especially as their numbers increase. Occupational therapy practitioners are well positioned to effectively engage caregivers as they navigate the health care system. The occupational therapy process looks broadly at the functional abilities, environmental contexts, and occupational demands that play a pivotal role in successful aging in place for clients and better outcomes for their caregivers. Now is the time to define occupational therapy’s distinct value to this area.
Keywords. aging, caregivers, health, clients, productive aging, occupational therapists, interdisciplinary treatment approach
Awada, M., Lucas, G., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. (2021). Working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic: Impact on office worker productivity and work experience. Work, 69(4), 1171-1189. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-210301 Show abstract
Background. With the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations embraced Work From Home (WFH). An important component of transitioning to WFH is the effect on workers, particularly related to their productivity and work experience.
Objectives. The objective of this study is to examine how worker-, workspace-, and work-related factors affected productivity and time spent at a workstation on a typical WFH day during the pandemic.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to collect the necessary information. Data from 988 respondents were included in the analyses.
Results. Overall perception of productivity level among workers did not change relative to their in-office productivity before the pandemic. Female, older, and high-income workers were likely to report increased productivity. Productivity was positively influenced by better mental and physical health statuses, having a teenager, increased communication with coworkers and having a dedicated room for work. Number of hours spent at a workstation increased by approximately 1.5 hours during a typical WFH day. Longer hours were reported by individuals who had school age children, owned an office desk or an adjustable chair, and had adjusted their work hours.
Conclusion. The findings highlight key factors for employers and employees to consider for improving the WFH experience.
Haugg, A., Renz, F. M., Nicholson, A. A., Lor, C., Götzendorfer, S. J., Sladky, R., Skouras, S., McDonald, A., Craddock, C., Hellrung, L., Kirschner, M., Herdener, M., Koush, Y., Papoutsi, M., Keynan, J., Hendler, T., Cohen Kadosh, K., Zich, C., Kohl, S. H., Hallschmid, M., MacInnes, J., Adcock, R. A., Dickerson, K. C., Chen, N.-K., Young, K., Bodurka, J., Marxen, M., Yao, S., Becker, B., Auer, T., Schweizer, R., Pamplona, G., Lanius, R. A., Emmert, K., Haller, S., Van De Ville, D., Kim, D.-Y., Lee, J.-H., Marins, T., Megumi, F., Sorger, B., Kamp, T., Liew, S.-L., Veit, R., Spetter, M., Weiskopf, N., Scharnowski, F., & Steyrl, D. (2021). Predictors of real-time fMRI neurofeedback performance and improvement — A machine learning mega-analysis. NeuroImage, 237, 118207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118207 Show abstract
Real-time fMRI neurofeedback is an increasingly popular neuroimaging technique that allows an individual to gain control over his/her own brain signals, which can lead to improvements in behavior in healthy participants as well as to improvements of clinical symptoms in patient populations. However, a considerably large ratio of participants undergoing neurofeedback training do not learn to control their own brain signals and, consequently, do not benefit from neurofeedback interventions, which limits clinical efficacy of neurofeedback interventions. As neurofeedback success varies between studies and participants, it is important to identify factors that might influence neurofeedback success. Here, for the first time, we employed a big data machine learning approach to investigate the influence of 20 different design-specific (e.g. activity vs. connectivity feedback), region of interest-specific (e.g. cortical vs. subcortical) and subject-specific factors (e.g. age) on neurofeedback performance and improvement in 608 participants from 28 independent experiments.
With a classification accuracy of 60% (considerably different from chance level), we identified two factors that significantly influenced neurofeedback performance: Both the inclusion of a pre-training no-feedback run before neurofeedback training and neurofeedback training of patients as compared to healthy participants were associated with better neurofeedback performance. The positive effect of pre-training no-feedback runs on neurofeedback performance might be due to the familiarization of participants with the neurofeedback setup and the mental imagery task before neurofeedback training runs. Better performance of patients as compared to healthy participants might be driven by higher motivation of patients, higher ranges for the regulation of dysfunctional brain signals, or a more extensive piloting of clinical experimental paradigms. Due to the large heterogeneity of our dataset, these findings likely generalize across neurofeedback studies, thus providing guidance for designing more efficient neurofeedback studies specifically for improving clinical neurofeedback-based interventions. To facilitate the development of data-driven recommendations for specific design details and subpopulations the field would benefit from stronger engagement in open science research practices and data sharing.
Chakraborty, S., Saetta, G., Simon, C., Lenggenhager, B., & Ruddy, K. (2021). Could brain–computer interface be a new therapeutic approach for body integrity dysphoria? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 699830. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.699830 Show abstract
Patients suffering from body integrity dysphoria (BID) desire to become disabled, arising from a mismatch between the desired body and the physical body. We focus here on the most common variant, characterized by the desire for amputation of a healthy limb. In most reported cases, amputation of the rejected limb entirely alleviates the distress of the condition and engenders substantial improvement in quality of life. Since BID can lead to life-long suffering, it is essential to identify an effective form of treatment that causes the least amount of alteration to the person’s anatomical structure and functionality. Treatment methods involving medications, psychotherapy, and vestibular stimulation have proven largely ineffective. In this hypothesis article, we briefly discuss the characteristics, etiology, and current treatment options available for BID before highlighting the need for new, theory driven approaches. Drawing on recent findings relating to functional and structural brain correlates of BID, we introduce the idea of brain–computer interface (BCI)/neurofeedback approaches to target altered patterns of brain activity, promote re-ownership of the limb, and/or attenuate stress and negativity associated with the altered body representation.
Cogan, A. M., Haines, C. E., & Devore, M. D. (2021). Intersections of US military culture, hegemonic masculinity, and health care among injured male service members. Men and Masculinities, 24(3), 468-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X19872793 Show abstract
In this paper, we explore how socially constructed hegemonic masculinity permeates military culture, and how this cultural context intersects with the seeking and receiving of health care by active-duty US military service members with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) (n = 18). Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups. Using Bourdieu’s theory of practice as an analytical framework, we identified four themes: maintenance of social capital, remaining in the field, reframing health care use to bolster social capital, and risk of health care use as not being rewarded. Each emerged from statements about why participants had avoided seeking health care for physical and psychological needs during their military service. We consider our findings in the context of maintaining status within an institutional steeped in hegemonic masculinity and describe implications for reframing caring for the body and dealing with problems as masculine acts.
Keywords. mild traumatic brain injury, military personnel, culture, masculinity
Sprugnoli, G., Rossi, S., Liew, S.-L., Bricolo, E., Costantini, G., Salvi, C., Golby, A. J., Musaeus, C. S., Pascual-Leone, A., Rossi, A., & Santarnecchi, E. (2021). Enhancement of semantic integration reasoning by tRNS. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 21, 736–746. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00885-x Show abstract
The right hemisphere is involved with the integrative processes necessary to achieve global coherence during reasoning and discourse processing. Specifically, the right temporal lobe has been proven to facilitate the processing of distant associate relationships, such as generating novel ideas. Previous studies showed a specific swing of alpha and gamma oscillatory activity over the right parieto-occipital lobe and the right anterior temporal lobe respectively, when people solve semantic problems with a specific strategy, i.e., insight problem-solving. In this study, we investigated the specificity of the right parietal and temporal lobes for semantic integration using transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS). We administered a set of pure semantics (i.e., Compound Remote Associates [CRA]) and visuo-semantic problems (i.e., Rebus Puzzles) to a sample of 31 healthy volunteers. Behavioral results showed that tRNS stimulation over the right temporal lobe enhances CRA accuracy (+12%), while stimulation on the right parietal lobe causes a decrease of response time on the same task (−2,100 ms). No effects were detected for Rebus Puzzles. Our findings corroborate the involvement of the right temporal and parietal lobes when solving purely semantic problems but not when they involve visuo-semantic material, also providing causal evidence for their postulated different roles in the semantic integration process and promoting tRNS as a candidate tool to boost verbal reasoning in humans.
Roll, S. C., Hardison, M. E., Forrest, J. L., Colclazier, N. L., Sumi, J. Y., & Baker, N. A. (2021). A standardized protocol for the comprehensive assessment of dental hygiene work. Work, 69(3), 1041-1052. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-213534 Show abstract
Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent in dental hygienists. Although engineering controls and ergonomic training is available, it is unclear why this intransigent problem continues. One possible barrier is that a comprehensive, standardized protocol for evaluating dental hygiene work does not exist.
Objective. This study aimed to generate a valid and reliable observational protocol for the assessment of dental hygiene work.
Methods. An iterative process was used to establish and refine an ecologically valid video acquisition and observation protocol to assess key activities, tasks, and performance components of dental hygiene work.
Results. Good inter-rater reliability was achieved across all variables when the final coding scheme was completed by three independent raters.
Conclusions. This work provides an exemplar of the process required to generate a comprehensive protocol for evaluating the work components of a particular job, and provides standardized nomenclature for use by scientists and practitioners interested in understanding and addressing the pervasive issue of work-related disorders in dental hygienists.
Keywords. Dental hygienists; clinical; ergonomics; research protocol.
Yao, B., Takata, S. C., Mack, W. J., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Modeling extracurricular activity participation with physical and mental health in college students over time. Journal of American College Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1926263 Show abstract
Objective. To describe extracurricular activity participation and explore its relationship with college students’ health.
Participants. 159 college students majoring in dental hygiene or occupational therapy.
Methods. Data were collected prospectively at baseline, one- and two-year follow-ups. Self-reported participation in extracurricular activities over the past six months was grouped into eight categories: Fitness, Sports, Creative arts, Leisure, Social, Work, Caregiving, and Animal care. Physical and mental health were measured using SF-36, a valid tool measuring general health.
Results. Participation in fitness, sports, creative arts, and work significantly decreased at one-year and two-year follow-ups (p < 0.01). Work/volunteer activity participation was associated with poorer physical health (β = –1.4, 95% CI: (–2.2, −0.5), p < 0.01), but a change from nonparticipation to some participation in work/volunteer activity was associated with better mental health (β = 2.6, 95% CI (0.3, 4.9), p = 0.04).
Conclusions. Educators should consider the potential impact of maintaining extracurricular activities on college students’ health when designing academic courses.
Keywords. College student; extracurricular activity; health; SF-36; well-being
Laine, C. M., Cohn, B. A., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2021). Temporal control of muscle synergies is linked with alpha-band neural drive. The Journal of Physiology, 599(13), 3385-3402. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP281232 Show abstract
During movement, groups of muscles may be controlled together by the nervous system as an adaptable functional entity, or ‘synergy’. The rules governing when (or if) this occurs during voluntary behaviour in humans are not well understood, at least in part because synergies are usually defined by correlated patterns of muscle activity without regard for the underlying structure of their neural control. In this study, we investigated the extent to which comodulation of muscle output (i.e. correlation of electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes) implies that muscles share intermuscular neural input (assessed via EMG–EMG coherence analysis). We first examined this relationship among pairs of upper limb muscles engaged in an arm cycling task. We then applied a novel multidimensional EMG–EMG coherence analysis allowing synergies to be characterized on the basis of shared neural drive. We found that alpha-band coherence (8–16 Hz) is related to the degree to which overall muscle activity levels correlate over time. The extension of this coherence analysis to describe the cross-muscle distribution and temporal modulation of alpha-band drive revealed a close match to the temporal and structural features of traditionally defined muscle synergies. Interestingly, the coherence-derived neural drive was inversely associated with, and preceded, changes in EMG amplitudes by ∼200 ms. Our novel characterization of how alpha-band neural drive is dynamically distributed among muscles is a fundamental step forward in understanding the neural origins and correlates of muscle synergies.
Keywords. alpha-band; coherence; EMG; synergy.
Krause, D., Roll, S. C., Javaherian-Dysinger, H., & Daher, N. (2021). Comparative efficacy of the dorsal application of Kinesio tape and splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Hand Therapy, 34(3), 351-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2020.03.010 Show abstract
Background. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms are problematic especially when signs and symptoms are not substantial enough to require surgical intervention. Conservative treatments have mixed effectiveness, yet are one of the best options for mild to moderate CTS. Kinesio tape is an emerging modality, as it provides biomechanical support while allowing movement.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of dorsal application of Kinesio tape on occupational performance as measured by pain and function in individuals with mild to moderate CTS, as compared with the accepted nonsurgical intervention of general cockup orthosis and lumbrical stretching exercises versus sham tape.
Study Design. Single-blind randomized controlled trial.
Methods. Forty-four participants (68 wrists) with CTS were randomized to one of three interventions: Kinesio tape group, sham group, or standard protocol group. Each completed baseline and four subsequent measurements of numeric pain rating scale, visual analog scale (VAS), Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), grip and pinch, with application of intervention every three days. Daily symptom journals were completed, standard protocol group recorded wearing schedule and exercises.
Results. In the forearm and wrist, a significant reduction in median numeric pain rating scale pain scores in Kinesio tape group was observed (r = 0.76, P = .01; r = 0.77, P = .01; respectively), but not in the standard protocol group (r = 0.51, P = .17; r = 0.53, P = .11) and sham group (r = 0.46, P = .30; r = 0.39, P = .43) with a minimal clinically important difference of 1.0. In the Kinesio tape group, the forearm (24%) and wrist (36%) reached the clinical significance as compared with the standard protocol forearm (18%) and wrist (32%).
The minimal clinically important difference for pain reduction on the visual analog scale was 1.64. Kinesio tape and sham group had significant improvement in function, but not the standard protocol group.
Discussion. This study provides promising evidence for the use of Kinesio tape as a possible conservative intervention for management of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate CTS. The study also illuminates new considerations of younger, active individuals reporting signs and symptoms of CTS as well as mechanism of effects on pain reduction.
Conclusions. Kinesio tape provided additional improvement in pain and function as compared to the standard approach.
Keywords. Carpal tunnel syndrome, Kinesio tape, Conservative interventions, Functional performance
Wilcox, J., & Frank, E. (2021). Occupational therapy for the long haul of post-COVID syndrome: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Suppl. 1), 7511210060. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.049223 Show abstract
Prolonged symptoms from the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), otherwise known as long COVID, postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), or post-COVID syndrome, are affecting an increasingly high number of patients after severe, moderate, and mild acute COVID-19 infections. Using evidence-based practice strategies, this case report describes occupational therapy evaluation and treatment approaches, plan of care, and associated outcomes for one client experiencing long COVID symptoms in the outpatient setting.
Wilcox, J., Peterson, K. S., Lewis, C. M., & Margetis, J. L. (2021). Occupational therapy during COVID-19–related critical illness: A case report. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Suppl. 1), 7511210010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.049196 Show abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges for occupational therapy practitioners working in acute and critical care settings. Using the best available evidence, this case report overviews a prototypical COVID-19 disease course and discusses key aspects of clinical reasoning for practitioners working with this novel population. Following a single patient admitted to a tertiary academic medical center, the authors review the occupational profile and medical history, common impairments, the intervention plan, and strategies to align the occupational therapy and medical goals of care.
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Davidson, L. F., Khromouchkine, N., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Response to Hori et al., “Association of Speech Therapy Time and Cognitive Recovery in Stroke Patients: A Comparison of Studies” [Letter to the editor]. JAMDA, 22(6), 1328-1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.02.026
Rogers, J. P., Watson, C. J., Badenoch, J., Cross, B., Butler, M., Song, J., Hafeez, D., Morrin, H., Rengasamy, E. R., Thomas, L., Ralovska, S., Smakowski, A., Sundaram, R. D., Hunt, C. K., Lim, M. F., Aniwattanapong, D., Singh, V., Hussain, Z., Chakraborty, S., Burchill, E., Jansen, K., Holling, H., Walton, D., Pollak, T. A., Ellul, M., Koychev, I., Solomon, T., Michael, B. D., Nicholson, T. R., & Rooney, A. G. (2021). Neurology and neuropsychiatry of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the early literature reveals frequent CNS manifestations and key emerging narratives. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 92(9), 932-941. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2021-326405 Show abstract
There is accumulating evidence of the neurological and neuropsychiatric features of infection with SARS-CoV-2. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to describe the characteristics of the early literature and estimate point prevalences for neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 18 July 2020 for randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies and case series. Studies reporting prevalences of neurological or neuropsychiatric symptoms were synthesised into meta-analyses to estimate pooled prevalence.
13 292 records were screened by at least two authors to identify 215 included studies, of which there were 37 cohort studies, 15 case-control studies, 80 cross-sectional studies and 83 case series from 30 countries. 147 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The symptoms with the highest prevalence were anosmia (43.1% (95% CI 35.2% to 51.3%), n=15 975, 63 studies), weakness (40.0% (95% CI 27.9% to 53.5%), n=221, 3 studies), fatigue (37.8% (95% CI 31.6% to 44.4%), n=21 101, 67 studies), dysgeusia (37.2% (95% CI 29.8% to 45.3%), n=13 686, 52 studies), myalgia (25.1% (95% CI 19.8% to 31.3%), n=66 268, 76 studies), depression (23.0% (95% CI 11.8% to 40.2%), n=43 128, 10 studies), headache (20.7% (95% CI 16.1% to 26.1%), n=64 613, 84 studies), anxiety (15.9% (5.6% to 37.7%), n=42 566, 9 studies) and altered mental status (8.2% (95% CI 4.4% to 14.8%), n=49 326, 19 studies). Heterogeneity for most clinical manifestations was high.
Neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 in the pandemic’s early phase are varied and common. The neurological and psychiatric academic communities should develop systems to facilitate high-quality methodologies, including more rapid examination of the longitudinal course of neuropsychiatric complications of newly emerging diseases and their relationship to neuroimaging and inflammatory biomarkers.
This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.
Ito, K. L., Cao, L., Reinberg, R., Keller, B., Monterosso, J., Schweighofer, N., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Validating habitual and goal-directed decision-making performance online in healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 13, 702810. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.702810 Show abstract
Everyday decision-making is supported by a dual-system of control comprised of parallel goal-directed and habitual systems. Over the past decade, the two-stage Markov decision task has become popularized for its ability to dissociate between goal-directed and habitual decision-making. While a handful of studies have implemented decision-making tasks online, only one study has validated the task by comparing in-person and web-based performance on the two-stage task in children and young adults. To date, no study has validated the dissociation of goal-directed and habitual behaviors in older adults online. Here, we implemented and validated a web-based version of the two-stage Markov task using parameter simulation and recovery and compared behavioral results from online and in-person participation on the two-stage task in both young and healthy older adults. We found no differences in estimated free parameters between online and in-person participation on the two-stage task. Further, we replicate previous findings that young adults are more goal-directed than older adults both in-person and online. Overall, this work demonstrates that the implementation and use of the two-stage Markov decision task for remote participation is feasible in the older adult demographic, which would allow for the study of decision-making with larger and more diverse samples.
Park, M., Lawlor, M. C., Solomon, O., & Valente, T. W. (2021). Understanding connectivity: The parallax and disruptive-productive effects of mixed methods social network analysis in occupational science. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(2), 287-307. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1812106 Show abstract
This article introduces social network analysis (SNA), a theoretical perspective accompanied by a set of methodologies, to occupational science. The convergence of SNA and occupational science is timely for both fields. By providing methodological approaches that flesh out a structural view of social networks, SNA measurements and mathematical terminology can effectively bridge the complexity of diverse interpretive frameworks used to understand occupational engagement and other constructs for humans as socially occupied beings. By focusing attention on the relationship of occupations to connectivity between agents, occupational science can make significant contributions to the ways in which the mattering or meaning of what people do with others nurtures the development and sustainability of social networks. We provide a brief history and roots of SNA in naturalistic observation, current terminology, and four widely used SNA research designs: egocentric, sociometric, sequenced, and two-mode. Drawing examples from our decade-long journey using SNA with narrative phenomenological conceptual frameworks, we illustrate how we used SNA with experience-near ethnographies to meet different objectives. In the discussion, we reflect on the parallax view created by the synergies between the disciplines and how the disruptive-productive effects that occur with mixing narrative phenomenology and SNA methods could address (mutual) methodological gaps that have seemingly limited conceptual development in the social sciences.
Keywords. Occupational science, Sociality, Intersubjectivity, Connectivity, Social network analysis, Social structure, Network interventions
Baranek, G. T., Frank, G., & Aldrich, R. M. (2021). Meliorism and knowledge mobilization: Strategies for occupational science research and practice. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(2), 274-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1824802 Show abstract
This article proposes that ‘meliorism’—a philosophical belief in people’s abilities to improve lived experience through engaged problem-solving—is a useful concept to describe and orient occupational science research, given the challenges of our time. This proposal derives from an intensive period of discussion through occupational science seminars, strategic planning sessions, and other activities at the University of Southern California’s Mrs. T. H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, including preparations for the 26th Occupational Science Symposium in 2019. While many disciplines and professions express a melioristic intent, we believe that occupational science and occupational therapy exemplify a particular understanding of meliorism, given the view of occupation that they share, as: 1) engaged activity that has meaning and purpose; and 2) a powerful tool that builds consciousness and practices that can promote desired change. We suggest that occupational scientists’ aim to develop impactful research manifests these conceptual foundations. Further, we argue that a commitment to meliorism requires concerted efforts to mobilize knowledge by intentionally planning for stakeholder engagement and societal impact across all phases of research. We suggest that active knowledge mobilization will enhance the knowledge base of occupational science and help to realize its meliorist potential in both research and practice contexts.
Keywords. Occupational science; Knowledge mobilization; Meliorism; History of academic disciplines; Pragmatism
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Ganz, D. A., Davidson, L., Cole, K. R., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Association of therapy time per day with functional outcomes and rate of recovery in older adults after elective joint replacement surgery. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(5), 881-887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.10.123 Show abstract
Objectives. To explore the association between therapy minutes per length of stay (LOS) day (TMLD), functional outcomes, and rate of functional recovery among older adults after elective hip or knee replacement surgery across postacute (PAC) settings.
Design. Secondary analysis of data collected for an observational cohort study from 2005 to 2010.
Setting. Four inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF) and 7 skilled nursing facilities (SNF).
Participants. Adults aged 65 years or older (N=162) with Medicare fee-for-service insurance and a primary diagnosis of elective hip or knee replacement.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. FIM mobility and self-care measures at discharge.
Results. The TMLD was divided into high, medium, and low categories. Participants were grouped into low, medium, and high gain rate groups based on their average change in mobility and self-care FIM measures per LOS day. Gain rate and TMLD groups were crossmapped to create 9 gain-TMLD groups separately for mobility and self-care. There were no significant differences in admission mobility or self-care measures by gain rate and TMLD trajectory or by facility type (IRF or SNF). TMLD was not significantly associated with discharge mobility measures. Participants in high gain trajectories attained independence with mobility and self-care tasks at discharge regardless of TMLD. Those in low gain trajectories needed supervision or assistance on all mobility tasks. Older age and greater pain at discharge were significantly associated with lower odds of being in the medium or high gain rate groups.
Conclusions. For clinicians and facility managers who must care for patients with constrained resources, the shift to value-based reimbursement for rehabilitation services in PAC settings has reinvigorated the question of whether the duration of therapy provided influences patient outcomes. Three hours of daily therapy after joint replacement surgery may exceed what is necessary for recovery. Postsurgical pain management remains a significant challenge in older adults.
Keywords. Arthroplasty; Geriatrics; Pain management; Rehabilitation
Gandhi, D. B., Kamalakannan, S., Chockalingam, M., Sebastian, I. A., Urimubenshi, G., Alim, M., Khatter, H., Chakraborty, S., & Solomon, J. M. (2021). Expert consensus for in-hospital neurorehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries. Wellcome Open Research, 6, 130. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16715.1 Show abstract
Background. People with neurological dysfunction have been significantly affected by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis in receiving adequate and quality rehabilitation services. There are no clear guidelines or recommendations for rehabilitation providers in dealing with patients with neurological dysfunction during a pandemic situation especially in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper was to develop consensus-based expert recommendations for in-hospital based neurorehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic for low- and middle-income countries based on available evidence.
Methods. A group of experts in neurorehabilitation consisting of neurologists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists were identified for the consensus groups. A scoping review was conducted to identify existing evidence and recommendations for neurorehabilitation during COVID-19. Specific statements with level 2b evidence from studies identified were developed. These statements were circulated to 13 experts for consensus. The statements that received ≥80% agreement were grouped in different themes and the recommendations were developed.
Results. 75 statements for expert consensus were generated. 72 statements received consensus from 13 experts. These statements were thematically grouped as recommendations for neurorehabilitation service providers, patients, formal and informal caregivers of affected individuals, rehabilitation service organizations, and administrators.
Conclusions. The development of this consensus statement is of fundamental significance to neurological rehabilitation service providers and people living with neurological disabilities. It is crucial that governments, health systems, clinicians and stakeholders involved in upholding the standard of neurorehabilitation practice in low- and middle-income countries consider conversion of the consensus statement to minimum standard requirements within the context of the pandemic as well as for the future.
Keywords. COVID-19, Pandemic, Neurorehabilitation, Guidelines, Consensus, Health Systems
Heiny, E., Wolf, S., Collins, M., Kellner, P. D., & Pineda, R. (2021). Factors related to enrollment in early therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Acta Paediatrica, 110(5), 1468-1474. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15700 Show abstract
Aim. Early therapy can improve developmental outcomes for preterm infants. However, preterm infants who are referred have low enrollment in early therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. This manuscript aims to investigate the relationship between infant medical and sociodemographic factors and enrollment in early therapy services post‐NICU discharge, when system‐related barriers to access are minimized.
Methods. This was a retrospective investigation of 89 families with infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Families were approached for enrollment into early therapy services following NICU discharge through Baby Bridge programming, which aims to improve access to therapy services following NICU discharge.
Results. Seventy‐three (82%) families enrolled in early therapy services, and 16 (18%) families declined. Parents were more likely to enroll in early therapy if they had public insurance (p=0.01), a maternal psychiatric diagnosis (p=0.02), or additional children under 18 years in the home (p=0.01). No infant medical factors were related to enrollment.
Conclusion. Although enrollment rates were high, 18% of families refused therapy services, despite removing system‐related barriers to access. Targeted interventions can be developed to increase enrollment in early therapy services among populations who are most likely to refuse therapy services after NICU discharge.
Keywords. Baby Bridge program; birth to three; development; early intervention; preterm infant
Williams, K. L., Campi, E., & Baranek, G. T. (2021). Associations among sensory hyperresponsiveness, restricted and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety in autism: An integrated systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 83, 101763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101763 Show abstract
Background. Autistic individuals exhibit core and co-occurring features that can be disabling to daily functioning and impede quality of life. The combined expression of three closely related features: sensory hyperresponsiveness, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety, may be a sign to practitioners that experiences in the environment are particularly challenging. These are investigated through many approaches, including animal modelling, neurological or physiological measures, behavioral observation, and first-hand accounts. However, little work has been done to review evidence across approaches to better understand their expression.
Method. This study was an integrated systematic review to identify factors that contribute to the collective expression of three constructs of interests (COIs; hyperresponsiveness, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and anxiety). Twenty-two articles were analyzed for both structural and thematic patterns. This review is unique in its inclusion of articles from a variety of disciplines and grouping of studies based on similarities over methodological techniques (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods).
Results. Three overall structural approaches relating the constructs of interest were identified (parallel, relational, and contingent). Three overarching themes also emerged: 1) the broader social context, 2) predictability of environmental factors, and 3) overlap with cognitive and behavioral coping strategies.
Conclusions. Results highlight clinically relevant information about the combined expression of the three COIs and demonstrate possibilities for increased collaboration across disciplines through common themes and study structures to further understand the experiences of autistic people.
Aryal, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G. M., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Intelligent agents to improve thermal satisfaction by controlling personal comfort systems under different levels of automation. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(8), 7089-7100. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.3038378 Show abstract
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 43% of building energy consumption, yet only 38% of commercial building occupants are satisfied with the thermal environment. The primary reasons for low occupant satisfaction are that HVAC operations do not integrate occupant comfort requirements nor control the thermal environment at the individual level. Personal comfort systems (PCS) enable local control of the thermal environment around each occupant. However, full manual control of PCS can be inefficient, and fully automated PCS reduces an occupant’s perceived control over the environment, which can then lead to lower satisfaction. A better solution might lie somewhere between fully manual and fully automated environmental control. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of an internet of things (IoT) based intelligent agent that learns individual occupant comfort requirements and controls the thermal environment using PCS (i.e., a local fan and a heater). We tested different levels of automation where control is shared between an intelligent agent and the end user. Our results show that PCS use improves occupant satisfaction and including some level of automation can improve occupant satisfaction further than what is possible with manually operated PCS. Among the levels of automation investigated, Inquisitive Automation, where the user approves/declines the control actions of the intelligent agent before execution, led to highest occupant satisfaction with the thermal environment.
Keywords. building automation, thermal comfort, smart systems, smart buildings, indoor environments
Kilroy, E., Harrison, L., Butera, C., Jayashankar, A., Cermak, S., Kaplan, J., Williams, M., Haranin, E., Bookheimer, S., Dapretto, M., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2021). Unique deficit in embodied simulation in autism: An fMRI study comparing autism and developmental coordination disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 42(5), 1532-1546. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25312 Show abstract
A deficit in pre‐cognitively mirroring other people's actions and experiences may be related to the social impairments observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear whether such embodied simulation deficits are unique to ASD or instead are related to motor impairment, which is commonly comorbid with ASD. Here we aim to disentangle how, neurologically, motor impairments contribute to simulation deficits and identify unique neural signatures of ASD. We compare children with ASD (N = 30) to children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; N = 23) as well as a typically developing group (N = 33) during fMRI tasks in which children observe, imitate, and mentalize about other people's actions. Results indicate a unique neural signature in ASD: during action observation, only the ASD group shows hypoactivity in a region important for simulation (inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis, IFGop). However, during a motor production task (imitation), the IFGop is hypoactive for both ASD and DCD groups. For all tasks, we find correlations across groups with motor ability, even after controlling for age, IQ, and social impairment. Conversely, across groups, mentalizing ability is correlated with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex when controlling for motor ability. These findings help identify the unique neurobiological basis of ASD for aspects of social processing. Furthermore, as no previous fMRI studies correlated brain activity with motor impairment in ASD, these findings help explain prior conflicting reports in these simulation networks.
Asaba, E., Aldrich, R. M., Gabrielsson, H., Ekstam, L., & Farias, L. (2021). Challenging conceptualisations of work: Revisiting contemporary experiences of return to work and unemployment. Journal of Occupational Science, 28(1), 81-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1820896 Show abstract
This article draws on empirically derived illustrations of return to work and unemployment to critically explore how a narrow understanding of work pervades contemporary social policies and programmes. This is particularly relevant in economic and labour market transitions aligned with neoliberalism that individualise the social problem of unemployment and thus restrict occupational possibilities related to work. An overview of how work and related concepts have been conceptualised in occupational science scholarship is presented. After describing the theoretical orientation of the paper, three illustrations derived from a secondary analysis of data from projects conducted in Sweden and the United States are presented. The three empirically grounded illustrations are integrated with theory to highlight tensions between the politically informed structures that shape social policies and programmes and the individual experiences of work, unemployment, and return to work that users and providers of these programmes communicate. By asserting that success in work-related placement programmes is not synonymous with meaningful employment, we attempt to heighten awareness of the potential risks associated with a reliance on measuring work by merely being in paid formal employment.
Keywords. Critical occupational science; Labour market; Return to work; Unemployment
Meether, M., Bush, C. N., Richter, M., & Pineda, R. (2021). Neurobehavior of very preterm infants at term equivalent age is related to early childhood outcomes. Acta Paediatrica, 110(4), 1181-1188. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15595 Show abstract
Aim. To describe neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood among infants born very preterm and define the relationships between neurobehavior of very preterm infants and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years.
Methods. Forty‐eight infants born ≤32 weeks gestation had neurobehavior assessed at term equivalent age using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Outcomes at 4 years were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ‐3), the Sensory Profile – Short Form (SF), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool version (BRIEF‐P).
Results. At 4 years, 23 (48%) children had at least one below average score on the ASQ‐3, 15 (31%) had a below average total score on the Sensory Profile‐SF, and 3 (6%) had an abnormal total score on the BRIEF‐P. Children with lower fine motor scores at 4 years had poorer orientation (p=.03) and self‐regulation (p=.03), hypertonia (p=.01), and more sub‐optimal reflexes (p=.02) as neonates. Children with lower gross motor scores at 4 years of age had more sub-optimal reflexes (p=.03) and lethargy (p=.046) as neonates. Children with tactile sensitivity at 4 years of age had poorer orientation (p=.01) and tolerance of handling (p=.03) as neonates. Children with decreased responsiveness at 4 years of age had low arousal (p=.02) as neonates, and those with poor auditory filtering at age 4 years had hypotonia (p=.03) as neonates.
Conclusion. Early neurobehavior is related to neurodevelopmental outcome in early childhood.
Patil, U., Kostareva, U., Hadley, M., Manganello, J. A., Okan, O., Dadaczynski, K., Massey, P. M., Agner, J., & Sentell, T. (2021). Health literacy, digital health literacy, and COVID-19 pandemic attitudes and behaviors in U.S. college students: Implications for interventions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6), 3301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063301 Show abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by rapidly emerging evidence, changing guidance, and misinformation, which present new challenges for health literacy (HL) and digital health literacy (DHL) skills. This study explored whether COVID-19-related information access, attitudes, and behaviors were associated with health literacy and digital health literacy among college students in the United States. Self-reported measures of health literacy, along with items on pandemic-related attitudes, behaviors, information sources, and social networks, were collected online using a managed research panel. In July 2020, 256 responses were collected, which mirrored the racial/ethnic and gender diversity of U.S. colleges. Only 49% reported adequate HL, and 57% found DHL tasks easy overall. DHL did not vary by HL level. In multivariable models, both HL and DHL were independently associated with overall compliance with basic preventive practices. Higher DHL, but not HL, was significantly associated with greater willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine and the belief that acquiring the disease would negatively impact their life. On average, respondents discussed health with 4–5 people, which did not vary by HL or DHL measures. The usage of online information sources varied by HL and DHL. The study findings can inform future student-focused interventions, including identifying the distinct roles of HL and DHL in pandemic information access, attitudes, and behaviors.
Keywords. COVID-19; coronavirus; health literacy; digital health literacy; eHealth literacy; college student; online survey; social network
Pineda, R., Roussin, J., Kwon, J., Heiny, E., Colditz, G., & Smith, J. (2021). Applying the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the implementation of the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program. BMC Pediatrics, 21, 137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02594-3 Show abstract
Background. To maximize the benefit of parent-directed, positive sensory exposures in the NICU, a structured sensory-based program titled the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program was developed that includes specific doses and targeted timing of evidence-based sensory exposures.
Methods. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to systematically evaluate the SENSE program as an implementation strategy. One-hundred preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestation were studied (61 receiving the SENSE program and 39 standard-of-care). Parent education time and infant sensory exposures were tracked, and parents completed a questionnaire that probed their perceptions about the SENSE program.
Results. One-hundered thirty-one families were recruited, and 100 (76%) enrolled. The SENSE program was initiated at an average postmenstrual age of 29.8 (±2.4) weeks; 4.9 (±5.6) days after birth. The average number of education sessions with families was 4.8 (±3.7) amounting to 72.3 (±37.4) total minutes over hospitalization. The total time of logged tactile and auditory exposures among SENSE recipients over the length of hospitalization was a median (IQ range) of 9325 (5295-15,694) minutes over an average of 10.1 (±7.6) weeks of hospitalization. There were differences in the proportion of tactile and auditory exposure targets received by the infant among those receiving the SENSE program compared to standard-of-care (91% compared to 48%; p < 0.0001). Ninety-five percent of infants tolerated the SENSE program as defined, with 5% of infants requiring intermittent adaptations or the interventions being stopped for a period that typically lasted 1–2 weeks. Earlier parent education was related to more parent participation in SENSE program interventions (p = 0.04). Eighty-five percent of participants receiving the SENSE program had most of the sensory interventions completed by parents, as opposed to the medical or sensory support team. Seventy-two percent of infants had at least 100% of the auditory and tactile doses conducted over the length of stay. Parents reported acceptability.
Conclusion. The SENSE program had good reach, was effective and acceptable with minimal cost, was adopted, and had good fidelity. Insights from implementation of the SENSE program (within a research study) informed future strategies to aid maintenance during dissemination.
Liu, Y., Zemke, R., Liang, L., & McLaughlin Gray, J. (2021). Occupational harmony: Embracing the complexity of occupational balance. Journal of Occupational Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2021.1881592 Show abstract
Occupational balance is a central concept in occupational science, but it is complex and lacks an agreed-upon definition. Further, the concept has not been given significant attention by scholars outside Western societies. Building upon traditional Chinese culture and Chinese scholars’ Human Complex System Theory, this article presents a proposed Model of Occupational Harmony, offering an Eastern understanding of how the orchestration of everyday occupations relates to health and well-being. The notion of occupational harmony highlights harmonious human-environment transactions as the essence of the phenomenon and integrates multiple perspectives in previous occupational balance literature, including activity patterns, time use, occupational characteristics, need satisfaction, and biological rhythms. It is asserted that occupational harmony can be characterized as complex equilibria among three pairs of two-sided occupational characteristics and achieved via harmony among five dimensions of occupational engagement and coherence across multiple levels of human-environment transactions. This article is a beginning theoretical conceptualization of occupational harmony, allowing occupational scientists to embrace the complexity of the orchestration of occupational engagement.
Keywords. Occupational science, Occupational balance, Culture, Occupational engagement, Systems theory
Nagamori, A., Laine, C. M., Loeb, G. E., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2021). Force variability is mostly not motor noise: Theoretical implications for motor control. PLoS Computational Biology, 17(3), e1008707. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008707 Show abstract
Variability in muscle force is a hallmark of healthy and pathological human behavior. Predominant theories of sensorimotor control assume ‘motor noise’ leads to force variability and its ‘signal dependence’ (variability in muscle force whose amplitude increases with intensity of neural drive). Here, we demonstrate that the two proposed mechanisms for motor noise (i.e. the stochastic nature of motor unit discharge and unfused tetanic contraction) cannot account for the majority of force variability nor for its signal dependence. We do so by considering three previously underappreciated but physiologically important features of a population of motor units: 1) fusion of motor unit twitches, 2) coupling among motoneuron discharge rate, cross-bridge dynamics, and muscle mechanics, and 3) a series-elastic element to account for the aponeurosis and tendon. These results argue strongly against the idea that force variability and the resulting kinematic variability are generated primarily by ‘motor noise.’ Rather, they underscore the importance of variability arising from properties of control strategies embodied through distributed sensorimotor systems. As such, our study provides a critical path toward developing theories and models of sensorimotor control that provide a physiologically valid and clinically useful understanding of healthy and pathologic force variability.
Marin-Pardo, O., Phanord, C., Donnelly, M. R., Laine, C. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2021). Development of a low-cost, modular muscle–computer interface for at-home telerehabilitation for chronic stroke. Sensors, 21(5), 1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051806 Show abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Recent studies have shown that high doses of repeated task-specific practice can be effective at improving upper-limb function at the chronic stage. Providing at-home telerehabilitation services with therapist supervision may allow higher dose interventions targeted to this population. Additionally, muscle biofeedback to train patients to avoid unwanted simultaneous activation of antagonist muscles (co-contractions) may be incorporated into telerehabilitation technologies to improve motor control. Here, we present the development and feasibility of a low-cost, portable, telerehabilitation biofeedback system called Tele-REINVENT. We describe our modular electromyography acquisition, processing, and feedback algorithms to train differentiated muscle control during at-home therapist-guided sessions. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of low-cost sensors for our training task with two healthy individuals. Finally, we present the results of a case study with a stroke survivor who used the system for 40 sessions over 10 weeks of training. In line with our previous research, our results suggest that using low-cost sensors provides similar results to those using research-grade sensors for low forces during an isometric task. Our preliminary case study data with one patient with stroke also suggest that our system is feasible, safe, and enjoyable to use during 10 weeks of biofeedback training, and that improvements in differentiated muscle activity during volitional movement attempt may be induced during a 10-week period. Our data provide support for using low-cost technology for individuated muscle training to reduce unintended coactivation during supervised and unsupervised home-based telerehabilitation for clinical populations, and suggest this approach is safe and feasible. Future work with larger study populations may expand on the development of meaningful and personalized chronic stroke rehabilitation.
Keywords. biofeedback; stroke; telerehabilitation; electromyography; human-computer interface
Margetis, J. L., Wilcox, J., Thompson, C., & Mannion, N. (2021). Occupational therapy: Essential to critical care rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75, 7502170010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.048827 Show abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic reshaped the health care landscape, leading to the reassignment of essential health care workers to critical areas and widespread furloughs of providers deemed nonessential, including occupational therapy practitioners. Although multidisciplinary critical care teams often include occupational therapy practitioners, efforts to define, measure, and disseminate occupational therapy’s unique contributions to critical care outcomes have been overlooked. This editorial provides recommendations to improve the occupational therapy profession’s readiness to meet society’s current and future pandemic needs. We propose a three-pronged strategy to strengthen occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and advocacy to illuminate the distinct value of occupational therapy in critical care.
Xiao, Y., Becerik-Gerber, B., Lucas, G., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Impacts of working from home during COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental well-being of office workstation users. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63(3), 181-190. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002097 Show abstract
Objective. To understand impacts of social, behavioral and physical factors on well-being of office workstation users during COVID-19 work from home (WFH).
Methods. A questionnaire was deployed from April 24 to June 11, 2020 and 988 responses were valid. Linear regression, multinomial logistic regression and chi-square tests were used to understand factors associated with overall physical and mental health statuses and number of new physical and mental health issues.
Results. Decreased overall physical and mental well-being after WFH were associated with physical exercise, food intake, communication with coworkers, children at home, distractions while working, adjusted work hours, workstation set-up and satisfaction with workspace indoor environmental factors.
Conclusion. This study highlights factors that impact workers’ physical and mental health well-being while WFH and provides a foundation for considering how to best support a positive WFH experience.
Keywords. COVID-19 pandemic, home office, mental well-being, physical well-being, work from home
Fukumura, Y. E., McLaughlin Gray, J., Lucas, G. M., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Worker perspectives on incorporating artificial intelligence into office workspaces: Implications for the future of office work. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 1(4), 1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041690 Show abstract
Workplace environments have a significant impact on worker performance, health, and well-being. With machine learning capabilities, artificial intelligence (AI) can be developed to automate individualized adjustments to work environments (e.g., lighting, temperature) and to facilitate healthier worker behaviors (e.g., posture). Worker perspectives on incorporating AI into office workspaces are largely unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore office workers’ views on including AI in their office workspace. Six focus group interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Interview questions were designed to generate discussion on benefits, challenges, and pragmatic considerations for incorporating AI into office settings. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Two primary constructs emerged. First, participants shared perspectives related to preferences and concerns regarding communication and interactions with the technology. Second, numerous conversations highlighted the dualistic nature of a system that collects large amounts of data; that is, the potential benefits for behavior change to improve health and the pitfalls of trust and privacy. Across both constructs, there was an overarching discussion related to the intersections of AI with the complexity of work performance. Numerous thoughts were shared relative to future AI solutions that could enhance the office workplace. This study’s findings indicate that the acceptability of AI in the workplace is complex and dependent upon the benefits outweighing the potential detriments. Office worker needs are complex and diverse, and AI systems should aim to accommodate individual needs.
Keywords. workspace; office work; computer workstations; artificial intelligence
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., Davidson, L. F., Khromouchkine, N., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Association of therapy time and cognitive recovery in stroke patients in post-acute rehabilitation. JAMDA, 22(2), 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.031 Show abstract
Objectives. Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent after stroke, with 77% of people having impairment in at least 2 cognitive domains. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between therapy minutes per length of stay (LOS) day and cognitive recovery in patients receiving rehabilitation services in inpatient post-acute care facilities following a stroke.
Design. Secondary analyses of data collected in inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities from 2005 to 2010 for an observational cohort study.
Setting and Participants. Participants were adults aged ≥65 years with Medicare insurance and primary diagnosis of stroke (N = 100). Participants who met criteria for dementia (n = 5) were excluded from analyses. We calculated therapy minutes per LOS day for occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech-language pathology, and all therapies combined; therapy times were dichotomized into high or low minutes per LOS day (MLD). We used an ordinary least squares regression model for cognitive outcome at discharge to control for cognitive status at admission, therapy intensity by discipline, and LOS.
Results. At baseline, participants were classified as having severe (n = 11), moderate (n = 39), or mild (n = 45) cognitive impairment. Impairment groups were not significantly different on any demographic variables. The adjusted regression model showed that high occupational therapy MLD (>50 minutes per LOS day) (P = .028) was significantly associated with cognitive measure at discharge compared with low occupational therapy MLD when controlling for cognitive impairment group at baseline (P < .001). Neither high physical therapy MLD nor speech-language pathology MLD was significantly associated with cognitive outcome relative to their respective low TMLD groups.
Conclusions and Implications. Our results show that higher-intensity occupational therapy services were associated with better cognitive outcome at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. Findings also suggest that volume of therapy alone does not necessarily produce optimal outcomes. Both amount and type of therapy should be tailored to meet the needs of individual patients.
Keywords. Rehabilitation; cognition; cognitive dysfunction; stroke; occupational therapy; post-acute care
Agner, J. (2021). An examination of community psychology values and their application to community-based participatory research. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 12(1), 1-10. Full text Show abstract
Conventional research involves participants primarily as sources of data (Wallerstein & Duran, 2006), relies upon a positivist tradition wherein researchers are seen as neutral, objective observers (Bhawuk, 2008), and is not necessarily concerned with the application of findings to improve the social conditions of those involved. In many places around the world, this has led to distrusting relationships between communities and researchers, and has also likely limited the potential for research to help ameliorate social problems (Smith, 1999). In this article, action research is presented as an alternative to conventional research practices, and is examined in relation to four community psychology values. A brief history and the main principles of action research are described, followed by a discussion of its evolution to participatory, or community-based participatory research (CBPR), and connection to four values identified by Bond (2016). These include: 1) empowerment, 2) promotion of social justice, equity and social change, 3) attention to diversity in its various forms, and 4) adoption of an ecological perspective and multilevel analyses. Each value is discussed in terms of theoretical alignment as well as challenges and successes in application to research and practice. This work deepens the rationale for the use of action research in community psychology, and may be used as a lens to evaluate practice and research.
Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Vigen, C. L., Martínez, J., Blanchard, J., & Carlson, M. (2021). Long-term follow-up of a lifestyle intervention for late-midlife, rural-dwelling Latinos in primary care. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75, 7502205020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.042861 Show abstract
Importance. Rural-dwelling Latinos are an underresourced population in need of accessible and effective wellness programs.
Objective. To evaluate patients’ long-term health-related outcomes after lifestyle intervention.
Design. An uncontrolled pilot trial assessing change in health from pretreatment to long-term follow-up (12 mo after intervention completion, no contact) and from posttreatment to long-term follow-up.
Setting. Rural, community-based primary care.
Participants. Latino and Hispanic safety-net primary care patients, ages 50 to 64 yr.
Intervention. A culturally tailored, 4-mo lifestyle intervention co-led by occupational therapy practitioners and Latino community health workers that features telehealth and in-home sessions covering topics such as healthy eating and navigating health care.
Outcomes and Measures. Self-reported and physiological outcomes: symptom–well-being (primary), stress, sleep disturbance, social satisfaction, physical activity, patient activation, blood pressure, and weight. Exit interviews addressed health experiences and intervention impact on participants’ lives.
Results. Participants (N = 27) demonstrated clinically significant pretreatment to long-term follow-up benefits in all symptom–well-being dimensions (Cohen’s d ≥ 0.8, p ≤ .004), with additional gains from posttreatment to long-term follow-up (d ≥ 0.4, p ≤ .05). Significant improvements from pre- to posttreatment in systolic blood pressure, stress, and social role and activity satisfaction were maintained at long-term follow-up. No changes were observed in weight, physical activity, or diastolic blood pressure. Participants described the intervention’s sustained positive effect on their wellness.
Conclusions and Relevance. A lifestyle intervention led by occupational therapy practitioners and community health workers in a primary care context has potential to achieve long-term health benefits in rural-dwelling, late-midlife Latinos.
What This Article Adds. This study reveals that rural, late-midlife Latinos showed long-lasting improvements in psychological and physical health after finishing a program that helped them make healthy lifestyle choices. This finding supports the unique contribution of occupational therapy in primary care settings.
Stein Duker, L. I., Schmidt, A. R., Pham, P. K., Ringold, S. M., & Nager, A. L. (2021). Use of audiobooks as an environmental distractor to decrease state anxiety in children waiting in the pediatric emergency department: A pilot and feasibility study. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 8, 556805. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.556805 Show abstract
Objectives. Anxiety and anticipatory stressors are commonly experienced by children visiting the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), but little research exists that addresses the efficacy of interventions to decrease this stress. This one-sample pretest-postest pilot study gathered preliminary data on the feasibility and effectiveness of utilizing audiobooks to reduce fear and state anxiety in children in the PED.
Methods. Participants were 131 children in kindergarten through 8th grade (M = 9.4 years, 54% female), triaged urgent or emergent, presenting to the PED. Participants self-reported fear (Children's Fear Scale) and state anxiety (modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children; mSTAIC) before and after listening to an age-appropriate audiobook (two options). Data regarding patient experience were also collected. Paired samples t-test was used to examine pre–post intervention changes in fear and state anxiety.
Results. Significant, albeit small, improvements in fear and the mSTAIC states of nervous, calm, happy, and relaxed were found after use of the audiobook (Cohen's dz = 0.22–0.35). Small, yet significant correlations were found between child age/grade level and improvements in fear and in the mSTAIC states of scared and relaxed, suggesting that the audiobook was more beneficial for older participants. Over 60% of participants liked the audiobook content “a lot” as well as enjoyed listening to the audiobook “a lot.” Without prompting, 15% of participants requested to listen to an additional audiobook.
Conclusions. Listening to an audiobook is feasible and could be effective in decreasing fear and state anxiety for children during a waiting period in the PED. The technology is low-cost, simple, and portable. The results of this study should be interpreted with prudence due to the lack of a control group and results that, although significant, were modest based on effect size conventions; future studies should explore the impact of audiobooks on patient stress with an expanded sample size and control group.
Keywords. distraction, environment, pediatrics, audiobook, fear, state anxiety, emergency department (ED)
Weaver, J. A., Cogan, A. M., Davidson, L., & Mallinson, T. (2021). Combining items from 3 federally mandated assessments using Rasch measurement to reliably measure cognition across postacute care settings. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102(1), 106-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.07.003 Show abstract
Objective. To combine items from the Functional Independence Measure, Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0, and the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS)-B to reliably measure cognition across postacute care settings and facilitate future studies of patient cognitive recovery.
Design. Rasch analysis of data from a prospective, observational cohort study.
Setting. Postacute care inclusive of inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and home health agencies.
Participants. Patients (N=147) receiving rehabilitation services.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. Functional Independence Measure, MDS 2.0, and the OASIS-B.
Results. Six cognition items demonstrated good construct validity with no misfitting items, unidimensionality, good precision (person separation reliability, 0.95), and an item hierarchy that reflected a clinically meaningful continuum of cognitive challenge.
Conclusions. This is the first attempt to combine the cognition items from the 3 historically, federally mandated assessments to create a common metric for cognition. These 6 items could be adopted as standardized patient assessment data elements to improve cognitive assessment across postacute care settings.
Keywords. Cognition; Outcome measures; Rehabilitation; Stroke; Subacute care
Murphy, S. L., Krause, D., Roll, S. C., Gandikota, G., Barber, M., & Khanna, D. (2021). Development of a musculoskeletal ultrasound protocol to examine upper extremity rehabilitation outcomes in systemic sclerosis. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 37(1), 13-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479320965210 Show abstract
Objectives. This study developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) protocol to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes in systemic sclerosis.
Materials and Methods. Three MSUS methods (gray-scale, Doppler, strain elastography) and two acquisition techniques (long- vs short-axis; transducer on skin vs floating on gel) were examined in the forearm before and after rehabilitation treatment. For gray-scale, tissue thickness measures and intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]), and paired t tests examined differences among techniques.
Results. Five people with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis participated. The most valid and reliable gray-scale technique was with the transducer in long-axis, floating on gel. Doppler and strain elastography did not detect changes. Both dermal and subcutaneous thickness measurement error was small; intrarater and interrater reliability was good to excellent. Preliminary data indicate that treatment may lead to dermal thinning.
Conclusion. A replicable protocol was established and may be an adjunct to rehabilitation outcome measurement in systemic sclerosis.
Keywords. musculoskeletal ultrasound, scleroderma, rehabilitation, protocol
Yue, J. W., Delavar, M., Padini, B., Vanstrum, E., Milman, T., & Sideris, J. (2021). The value of occupational therapy student participation in university-based student-run free clinics in the United States. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 5(4), 13. https://doi.org/10.26681/jote.2021.050413 Show abstract
While student-run free clinic (SRFC) participation is well-documented among many health professions, no study has comprehensively characterized occupational therapy student participation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand both the current presence as well as educational impact of occupational therapy student participation in university-based SRFCs in the United States (U.S). Data collection occurred through a national survey and semi-structured interviews. Surveys were sent to representatives (e.g. program directors, faculty advisors, and student leaders) at all 190 accredited occupational therapy schools. Of these, 118 responded, for an overall response rate of 62.1%. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of physician’s assistant, medical, pharmacy, and occupational therapy students (N=9). Results showed that 12.7% of schools contributed volunteers to at least one SRFC (N=15). Themes included that occupational therapy students provided a unique perspective to the interprofessional team, educated other students about occupational therapy’s scope, and demonstrated strong patient interviewing skills. They also learned from opportunities to explore future career possibilities, engage in interdisciplinary teamwork, and practice skills in a safe space. Occupational therapy programs have a relatively low rate of participation (12.7%) in SRFCs compared to other health professions nationally. However, occupational therapy and other health professional students report that occupational therapy student participation creates important educational opportunities. These opportunities may strengthen occupational therapy’s role in interprofessional team-based care, especially within the emerging practice area of primary care.
Holland, C. M., Blanche, E. I., & Thompson, B. L. (2021). Quantifying therapists’ activities during sensory integration treatment for young children with autism. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics, 41(3), 284-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/01942638.2020.1847235 Show abstract
Aims. There is limited research on the type and quantity of actions (activities) occupational therapy practitioners utilize when providing sensory integration treatment to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
Methods. A coding scheme identifying specific aspects of sensory integration treatment was developed and used to analyze 34 videos of 9 children with ASD, aged between 18 and 56 months, treated by 8 occupational therapists. Occupational therapists providing sensory integration treatment to children with ASD were behaviorally coded and rated using Observer XT, a software package designed for analysis of behavioral processes.
Results. Verbal communications, including offers, positive commands, and feedback, to facilitate engagement were the most frequent actions enacted by therapists. Proprioceptive activities were the most frequent sensory opportunities presented. Therapists received high ratings for sensitivity qualities.
Conclusions. The number of sensory opportunities and interactions the therapists provided suggest concordance with sensory integration treatment components in the clinical setting. General impression ratings indicate engagement between child and therapist may be an important aspect of sensory integration treatment for young children with ASD. Quantification of therapists’ actions can provide insight into the moment-to-moment decision-making and relationships between therapist and child during daily practice of sensory integration treatment.
Como, D. H., Stein Duker, L. I., Polido, J. C., & Cermak, S. A. (2021). Oral health and autism spectrum disorders: A unique collaboration between dentistry and occupational therapy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010135 Show abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at risk for oral health disparities. With the dramatic rise in ASD prevalence to 1 in 54 children, it is likely that an increasing number of dental practitioners will encounter or be asked to treat children with ASD. This paper reviews explanations related to the increasing prevalence of ASD, provides reasons why children with ASD are at increased risk for poor oral health, and discusses unique interprofessional collaborations between dental practitioners and occupational therapists. Occupational therapists and dentists can work together to plan modifications to the dental environment or adapt dental protocols to reduce some of the barriers encountered by those with ASD, provide desensitization strategies before the clinic visit, or help a child with emotional regulation during clinical treatments.
Keywords. autism spectrum disorder; dentistry; interprofessional collaboration; occupational therapy; oral health
Yeager, J., & Rennie, M. (2021). Student veterans’ experiences of a campus veterans center revealed through Photovoice. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 69(1), 46-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2020.1813483 Show abstract
This phenomenological qualitative study employed Photovoice to investigate the experiences of college student service members and veterans (SSM/V) in relation to the transition from the military to higher education. Twelve participants took three photographs per day for seven days that reflected their everyday experiences as SSM/V. Individual interviews and focus groups engaged participants in a discussion of the meaning of the experiences represented in the photographs. Thematic analysis revealed that SSM/V experienced social disconnection upon returning from military service, that they viewed the campus military and veterans center (MVC) as a supportive environment, that newly assumed roles in the context of the MVC provided a new sense of identity and meaning, and that social connections with other veterans provided a key source of support. A campus MVC may serve as a valued campus resource for the development of new social networks and roles that support the successful transition for SSM/V.
Keywords. Photovoice, student service members and veterans, transition, well-being
Non–communicable diseases (NCDs) is an umbrella term used to describe a cluster of diseases constituting of Cardiovascular and Chronic Respiratory complications, Cancer, Diabetes and Mental Health conditions. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that nearly 71% of all deaths worldwide (41 million people) can be attributed to inadequate and untimely intervention for Non–communicable diseases. Out of the 41 million people affected, the most vulnerable groups placed at the epicentre to face the repercussions of the growing impacts of NCDs are children, young people, people of lower socio-economic status (SES) and those belonging to lower and lower-middle income countries (LMICs). We call for policies to be more youth-inclusive and suggest further recommendations to incorporate youth voices and interventions to combat the global burden of NCDs as young people constitute of a major demographic widely affected by NCDs yet remain underrepresented in their say on tackling NCDs across local, regional, national and global levels.
Blanche, E. I., & Gunter, J. S. (2020). Sensory processing disorders. In J. B. Benson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of infant and early childhood development (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 116-124). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. Full text
Blanche, E. I., Reinoso, G., & Keifer, D. B. (2020). Using clinical observations within the evaluation process. In A. C. Bundy & S. J. Lane (Eds.), Sensory Integration: Theory and Practice (3rd ed., pp. 222-242). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.
Campi, E., Lord, C., & Grzadzinski, R. (2020). Screening for autism spectrum disorder and developmental delays in infants and toddlers. In K. Chawarska & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorder in the first years of life: Research, assessment, and treatment (pp. 41-85). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cogan, A. M., Smith, B., Bender Pape, T. L., Mallinson, T., Eapen, B. C., & Scholten, J. (2020). Self-reported participation restrictions among male and female veterans with traumatic brain injury in Veterans Health Administration outpatient polytrauma programs. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 101(12), 2071-2079. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.06.030 Show abstract
Objectives. To identify areas of most restricted self-reported participation among veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI), explore associations among participation restriction and clinical characteristics, and examine differences in participation restrictions by sex.
Design. Retrospective cross-sectional design.
Setting. National VA Polytrauma System of Care outpatient settings.
Participants. Veterans with a confirmed TBI event (N=6065).
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measure(s). Mayo-Portland Participation Index (M2PI), a 5-point Likert-type scale with 8 items. Total score was converted to standardized T score for analysis.
Results. The sample consisted of 5679 male and 386 female veterans with ≥1 clinically confirmed TBI events (69% white; 74% with blast exposure). The M2PI items with greatest perceived restrictions were social contact, leisure, and initiation. There were no significant differences between men and women on M2PI standardized T scores. Wilcoxon rank-sum analyses showed significant differences by sex on 4 items: leisure, residence, employment, and financial management (all P<.01). In multinomial logistic regression on each item controlling for demographics, injury characteristics, and comorbidities, female veterans had significantly greater relative risk for part-time work and unemployment on the employment item and significantly less risk for impairment on the residence and financial management item.
Conclusions. There was no significant difference between men and women. Veterans on M2PI standardized T scores, which masks differences in response patterns to individual items. Clinical teams should be encouraged to discuss perceived restrictions with patients and target these areas in treatment planning. Future work is needed to investigate the psychometric properties of the M2PI by biological sex.
Gutiérrez Faccini, J. (2020). Patrones de procesamiento sensorial e intervención temprana en niños menores de 3 años: Una revisión de la literatura. Revista Chilena De Terapia Ocupacional, 20(2), 99–114. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-5346.2020.60545 Show abstract
La presente revisión se centra en proporcionar una visión general de la literatura que identifica estudios enfocados en definir los patrones de procesamiento sensorial en niños menores de 3 años y los enfoques de intervención identificados en esta población. Durante la última década ha existido un crecimiento constante de la literatura relacionada con el procesamiento sensorial en los niños pequeños, sin embargo, la información disponible entre las diferentes publicaciones es aún limitada y segmentada. En esta revisión se recopilaron 15 artículos sobre los patrones de procesamiento sensorial en los niños pequeños y 10 artículos relacionados con los enfoques de intervención para un total de 25 artículos publicados entre 2007 y 2017. Del análisis de la información obtenida acerca de los patrones de procesamiento sensorial, surgieron los siguientes temas: el diagnóstico y los factores de riesgo, el tipo de disfunción del procesamiento sensorial y el impacto funcional. Entre los temas que surgieron al analizar los enfoques de intervención, se destaca la importancia de la familia como un tema general que abarca subtemas de intervención, tales como: estrategias sensoriales, capacitación de los padres e intervenciones grupales. Si bien es necesario continuar desarrollando investigaciones que amplíen nuestro conocimiento en relación con estos temas en general, la evidencia apoya la efectividad de la intervención temprana.
Agner, J., Barile, J. P., Botero, A., Cha, T., Herrera, N., Kakau, T. M., Nakamura, L., Inada, M., & Hawaii Clubhouse Coalition. (2020). Understanding the role of mental health clubhouses in promoting wellness and health equity using Pilinahā — an indigenous framework for health. American Journal of Community Psychology, 66(3-4), 290-301. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12457 Show abstract
Individuals with severe mental illness need to be engaged in defining their own vision of wellness to promote equity and reduce disparities. This photovoice study helps define what wellness is and how it is achieved in mental health Clubhouses in Hawai‘i. Results from a photovoice study with 43 members and staff were analyzed using Pilinahā, a Native Hawaiian framework for health. Pilinahā envisions health through connection to place, community, past and future, and one’s better self. Within Clubhouses, connection to place included connection to ‘āina (land) and the access to a safe space. Connection to community occurred through reciprocal social support, which developed kuleana (responsibility), and a sense of ‘ohana (family) for many members who were previously isolated. Connection to one’s better self-involved positive identity change, development of hope, and pursuing opportunities within and outside the Clubhouse. Connection to past and future was described through individual narratives, remembering members who had died, and connection to cultural traditions. Overall, wellness was conceptualized as the ability to work toward dreams, engage in cultural practice, and feel accepted, respected, and valued — to be treated with aloha. Findings provide a culturally responsive perspective on wellness and illustrate the value of Clubhouses as a space for mental health recovery and transformative change.
Blanche, E. I., Berstein, K. N., Berrios, S. G., Díaz, S. M., Echeverría, V. R., & Prado, R. S. (2020). Experiencias de familias con niños en el espectro del autismo [Experiences of families with children in the autism spectrum]. Revista Chilena de Terapia Ocupacional, 20(2), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-5346.2020.60538 Show abstract
La prevalencia de trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) ha aumentado de manera alarmante a nivel global, estimando que 1 de cada 54 niños tiene TEA (Maenner et al. 2020). En América Latina las estadísticas son menos claras, pero se estima un número similar. En la mayoría de los países el diagnóstico se realiza varios meses o años después de la aparición de los primeros signos, esto representa un periodo estresante para las familias debido a los comportamientos inusuales de sus hijos y la posible incapacidad o retraso del desarrollo (Schieve et al. 2007). Objetivos. El propósito de este estudio fue explorar la experiencia de las familias con niños con TEA antes e inmediatamente después del diagnóstico. Se analizaron las respuestas de 48 familias de Chile, Argentina, Perú y Guatemala obtenidas mediante una encuesta on-line. Resultados. Los resultados indican que las familias son conscientes de las peculiaridades en el desarrollo de sus hijos antes de recibir un diagnóstico e intervención, muchas de estas peculiaridades tienen características sensoriales. Conclusión. Este estudio valida la experiencia de los padres y a la vez contribuye a la comprensión de los primeros signos de TEA en familias hispanas y el efecto que éstos producen en la dinámica familiar. Muchos de estos primeros signos están relacionados a procesamiento sensorial.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased alarmingly globally, estimating that 1 in 54 children has ASD (Maenner et al., 2020). In Latin America the statistics are less clear, but a similar number is estimated. In most countries the diagnosis is made several months or years after the appearance of the first signs, this represents a stressful period for families due to the unusual behaviors of their children and the possible disability or developmental delay (Schieve et al. al., 2007). Objectives. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of families with children with ASD before and immediately after diagnosis. The responses of 48 families from Chile, Argentina, Peru and Guatemala obtained through an online survey were analyzed. Results. The results indicate that families are aware of the peculiarities in the development of their children before receiving a diagnosis and intervention, many of these peculiarities have sensory characteristics. Conclusion. This study validates the parents’ experience and at the same time contributes to the understanding of the first signs of ASD in Hispanic families and the effect that these have on family dynamics. Many of these early signs are related to sensory processing
Agner, J., Barile, J. P., Chandler, S. M., & Berry, M. (2020). Innovation in child welfare: Factors affecting adoption of empirically supported interventions. Children and Youth Services Review, 119, 105580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105580 Show abstract
Despite a push to utilize evidence-informed practice there has been little research on unique challenges of implementing empirically supported interventions (ESIs) in child welfare. This study addresses that gap by identifying factors affecting adoption of three ESIs introduced to the child welfare system in Hawai’i: Intensive Home-based Services, Family Wraparound, and Safety, Permanency, and Well-being. In 2015, these programs were initiated as part of a Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration with the intention of preventing unnecessary placements in child welfare and increasing permanency. Two years after their start date, the three programs were utilized at a much lower rate than anticipated. A survey was developed to assess factors affecting program adoption based on data from focus groups and diffusion of innovation theory. Sixty-three caseworkers and unit supervisors were included in the final sample. Logistic regression was used to test relationships between referrals and implementation factors (knowledge, compatibility, relative advantage, risk, workload, time commitment, peer buy-in), and linear regression was used to examine relationships between peer buy-in, peer relationships, and relative advantage. Findings suggest workload, time commitment, and perceived risk of the interventions should be addressed during the implementation of new programs in child welfare, and that the caseworker’s social system can be targeted to improve relative advantage of new interventions. This study aims to contribute to knowledge on successful implementation of ESIs in child welfare to improve essential services for children and families.
Kwon, J., Kellner, P., Wallendorf, M., Smith, J., & Pineda, R. (2020). Neonatal feeding performance is related to feeding outcomes in childhood. Early Human Development, 151, 105202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105202 Show abstract
Aim. Define relationships of early feeding performance with feeding outcomes in childhood, while assessing the predictive validity of the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment.
Study design. Ninety-one infants (44 preterm infants born ≤32 weeks at term-equivalent age and 47 full-term infants within 4 days of life) had feeding evaluated using the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment and the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). At 4 years of age, 39 of these infants (22 preterm infants and 17 full-term infants; 43% follow-up rate) had parent-report measures of feeding conducted using the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool (PediEAT).
Results. Lower Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment scores were related to higher PediEAT scores (p = 0.01; r = −0.44), but were not related to BPFAS scores (p = 0.17; r = −0.23). Relationships were not detected between the NOMAS and BPFAS (p = 0.35; r = 0.17), and relationships between the NOMAS and PediEAT failed to reach significance (p = 0.06; r = 0.34). There was a relationship between the BPFAS and PediEAT scores at 4 years (p < 0.001; r = 0.66). Preterm infants performed poorer than full-term infants on the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment (p < 0.001) and NOMAS (p < 0.001), but no differences were detected in preterm compared to full-term performance on the BPFAS (p = 0.87) and PediEAT scores (p = 0.27).
Discussion. Neonatal feeding performance is an important predictor of feeding outcomes at 4 years of age. The Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment has predictive validity, and the Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool has concurrent validity with relationships to another childhood feeding tool.
Keywords. Oral motor, Neonatal intensive care unit, Development, Assessment, Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment, Outcome
Stein Duker, L. I., Richter, M., Lane, C. J., Polido, J. C., & Cermak, S. A. (2020). Oral care experiences and challenges for children with Down syndrome: Reports from caregivers. Pediatric Dentistry, 42(6), 430-435. Full text Show abstract
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral care experiences and challenges encountered by children with Down syndrome.
Methods. Participants were 372 parents of five- to 14-year-olds with Down syndrome. Parents completed a 48-item questionnaire designed by the authors to elicit information about oral care in the home and dental office. Descriptive statistics were used to examine oral care variables.
Results. Parents reported difficulty across almost all oral care variables, including oral care in the home, oral care at the dentist, and access to oral care. Approximately one-third of parent respondents reported that toothbrushing was difficult and brushing occurred four or fewer days a week. Over half of the respondents reported that it was difficult to have a dental professional clean their child's teeth, uncooperative behaviors and sensory sensitivities increased in the office, and those behaviors and sensitivities made care challenging. Most respondents reported having a dental home for their child, that it was difficult locating their dentist, and that finances limited visits.
Conclusions. Children with Down syndrome experience difficulties and barriers to care in both the home and dental office settings.
Chang, T. P., Ringold, S. M., Lichtenfeld, N., Nguyen, P., Paz, D., & Festekjian, A. (2020). The effect of rapid fluid infusions on transabdominal pelvic ultrasound timing among female pediatric patients: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 27(11), 1191-1193. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13945
Haugg, A., Sladky, R., Skouras, S., McDonald, A., Craddock, C., Kirschner, M., Herdener, M., Koush, Y., Papoutsi, M., Keynan, J. N., Hendler, T., Cohen Kadosh, K., Zich, C., MacInnes, J., Adcock, R. A., Dickerson, K., Chen, N., Young, K., Bodurka, J., Yao, S., Becker, B., Auer, T., Schweizer, R., Pamplona, G., Emmert, K., Haller, S., Van De Ville, D., Blefari, M., Kim, D., Lee, J., Marins, T., Fukuda, M., Sorger, B., Kamp, T., Liew, S.-L., Veit, R., Spetter, M., Weiskopf, N., & Scharnowski, F. (2020). Can we predict real‐time fMRI neurofeedback learning success from pretraining brain activity? Human Brain Mapping, 41(14), 3839-3854. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25089 Show abstract
Neurofeedback training has been shown to influence behavior in healthy participants as well as to alleviate clinical symptoms in neurological, psychosomatic, and psychiatric patient populations. However, many real‐time fMRI neurofeedback studies report large inter‐individual differences in learning success. The factors that cause this vast variability between participants remain unknown and their identification could enhance treatment success. Thus, here we employed a meta‐analytic approach including data from 24 different neurofeedback studies with a total of 401 participants, including 140 patients, to determine whether levels of activity in target brain regions during pretraining functional localizer or no‐feedback runs (i.e., self‐regulation in the absence of neurofeedback) could predict neurofeedback learning success. We observed a slightly positive correlation between pretraining activity levels during a functional localizer run and neurofeedback learning success, but we were not able to identify common brain‐based success predictors across our diverse cohort of studies. Therefore, advances need to be made in finding robust models and measures of general neurofeedback learning, and in increasing the current study database to allow for investigating further factors that might influence neurofeedback learning.
Liszka, L., Heiny, E., Smith, J., Schlaggar, B. L., Mathur, A., & Pineda, R. (2020). Auditory exposure of high‐risk infants discharged from the NICU and the impact of social factors. Acta Paediatrica, 109(10), 2049-2056. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15209 Show abstract
Aim. To (a) define the early home auditory environment of high‐risk infants within one month of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge, (b) compare auditory exposures in the home environment to the NICU environment, and (c) define relationships between maternal/infant factors and auditory exposures within the home.
Methods. Seventy‐three high‐risk infants (48 high‐risk infants in the NICU at term‐equivalent age and 25 high‐risk infants in the home following NICU discharge) had auditory exposures measured.
Results. An average of 1.3 hours more noise (P ≤ .001) and 2 hours less silence (P = .01) were observed in the NICU compared with the home, but differences varied based on whether comparing to an open ward or private room. Infants with public insurance, lower household income and mothers without a college education were exposed to an average of 2.8, 3.0 and 2.3 hours more TV/electronic sounds respectively (P < .05). An average of 1744 fewer adult words (P = .03) were spoken in households with public insurance. There was an average of 3.1 hours less silence and 4.5 dB louder stimuli among households with lower income (P < .05).
Conclusion. Elucidating differences across environments can lead to interventions to foster appropriate auditory exposures to improve language development of high‐risk infants.
Hernandez, R., Vidmar, A., & Pyatak, E. A. (2020). Lifestyle balance, restful and strenuous occupations, and physiological activation. Journal of Occupational Science, 27(4), 547-562. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2020.1732229 Show abstract
A balance between stressful and restful occupations is an important component of lifestyle balance (LB). We argue that excessive physiological activation from the stress of everyday engagement in occupation, and/or inadequate engagement in restful occupations, can lead to negative health outcomes through accumulation of allostatic load (AL), or physiological wear and tear on the body. This physiological activation manifests as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in elevations in serum levels of hormones such as cortisol and catecholamines. “Stress,” as the term is used colloquially, is just one possible source of physiological activation. Other possible sources include cognitive challenges and high motivation tasks. The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to present an explanatory model for how the LB component of a “pattern of occupations with a balance between stressful and restful engagements” can affect health and 2) to discuss metrics to measure physiological activation from stress/rest and explore how these metrics relate to existing measures of lifestyle and occupational balance. We speculate that these metrics may relate to existing measures of lifestyle and occupational balance in ways that help explain the mechanisms underlying them, with the amount of physiological activation that individuals experience on a daily basis determining their long-term health outcomes. There remains a need to develop innovative lifestyle interventions that support management of stress related physiological activation to promote health and well-being.
Keywords. Occupational science; Life balance; Occupational balance; Restful occupations; Strenuous occupations; Physiological stress; Explanatory mechanisms; Allostatic load
Fang, Y., Tung, K. D., Beleno-Sanchez, J., Forrest, J. L., & Roll, S. C. (2020). Characterization of tasks and time efficiency of dental hygiene students during clinical training. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 94(5), 30-37. Full text Show abstract
Purpose. Dental hygiene graduates often experience significant psychological stress while transitioning from the educational setting to clinical practice environments. The purpose of this study was to characterize the duration of dental hygiene activities and tasks and explore efficiency within appointments, by students in educational programs.
Methods. Right-handed female dental hygiene students were recruited from two dental hygiene education programs. Each participant was video recorded while providing patient care during 3 sessions, once per term, over 3 consecutive terms. Activities, tasks, and student postures and positions were coded across the patient visit. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize overall durations and distributions across each category. Time spent on non-dental hygiene related activities was compared to other durations, as well as across the education/training time points and by patient type.
Results. Fifty-three videos were analyzed from nineteen participants. The average patient visit length was 155.06 ± 35.63 minutes; approximately half the visit was dedicated to instrumentation activities. Nearly 20% of the visit was categorized as activities or tasks unrelated to education or patient care. Although most participants completed the patient visit more quickly by the third time point, the percentage of non-dental hygiene activities did not decrease, and there were no associations between patient category type and the duration of the patient visit.
Conclusion. Patient visits were roughly three times the length of the typical dental hygiene care appointment, indicating a disconnect between training and practice. In addition to spending more time on hand scaling tasks, participants spent a lot of time on equipment setup and interacting with or waiting for faculty members. These findings have implications for improving efficiency in educational settings, particularly to facilitate a successful transition to clinical practice.
Aldrich, R. M., Laliberte Rudman, D., Park, N. E., & Huot, S. (2020). Centering the complexity of long-term unemployment: Lessons learned from a critical occupational science inquiry. Societies, 10(3), 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030065 Show abstract
Inquiries that rely on temporal framings to demarcate long-term unemployment risk generating partial understandings and grounding unrealistic policy solutions. In contrast, this four-phase two-context study aimed to generate complex understandings of post-recession long-term unemployment in North America. Grounded in a critical occupational perspective, this collaborative ethnographic study also drew on street-level bureaucracy and governmentality perspectives to understand how social policies and discursive constructions shaped people’s everyday ‘doing’ within the arena of long-term unemployment. Across three phases, study methods included interviews with 15 organizational stakeholders who oversaw employment support services; interviews, participant observations, and focus groups with 18 people who provided front-line employment support services; and interviews, participant observations, time diaries, and occupational mapping with 23 people who self-identified as being long-term unemployed. We draw on selected interviews and mapping data to illustrate how participants’ definitions and experiences of long-term unemployment reflected and moved beyond dominant temporally based framings. These findings reinforce the need to expand the dominant conceptualizations of long-term unemployment that shape scholarly inquiries and policy responses. Reflections on the benefits and challenges of this study’s design also reinforce the need to use multiple, flexible methods to center the complexity of long-term unemployment as it is experienced in everyday life.
Keywords. long-term unemployment; critical occupational perspective; methods
Saldana, D., Neureither, M., Schmiesing, A., Jahng, E., Kysh, L., Roll, S. C., & Liew, S.-L. (2020). Applications of head-mounted displays for virtual reality in adult physical rehabilitation: A scoping review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(5), 7405205060. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.041442 Show abstract
Importance. Head-mounted displays for virtual reality (HMD–VR) may be used as a therapeutic medium in physical rehabilitation because of their ability to immerse patients in safe, controlled, and engaging virtual worlds.
Objective. To explore how HMD–VR has been used in adult physical rehabilitation.
Data Sources. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ERIC produced 11,453 abstracts, of which 777 underwent full-text review.
Study Selection and Data Collection. This scoping review includes 21 experimental studies that reported an assessment or intervention using HMD–VR in a physical rehabilitation context and within the scope of occupational therapy practice.
Findings. HMD–VR was used for assessment and intervention for patients with a range of disorders, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and Parkinson’s disease.
Conclusions and Relevance. HMD–VR is an emerging technology with many uses in adult physical rehabilitation. Higher quality clinical implementation studies are needed to examine effects on patient outcomes.
What This Article Adds. We review existing research on how immersive virtual reality (e.g., using head-mounted displays) has been used for different clinical populations in adult physical rehabilitation and highlight emerging opportunities in this field for occupational therapists.
Pineda, R., Heiny, E., Roussin, J., Nellis, P., Bogan, K., & Smith, J. (2020). Implementation of the Baby Bridge program reduces timing between NICU discharge and therapy activation. Journal of Early Intervention, 42(3), 275-296. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815119900241 Show abstract
The Baby Bridge program was developed to ensure timely and continuous therapy services following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. A systematic process for development of the Baby Bridge program included a review of the evidence, integration of theory, and input from NICU health care professionals, early intervention leadership, and parents of preterm infants. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we aimed to (a) assess organizational readiness for the new programming; (b) determine adoptability, acceptability, and fidelity following implementation; and (c) evaluate the program. Following the development of Baby Bridge programming, readiness for implementation was observed at the study site. Baby Bridge programming was adopted by the team, acceptable to health care staff and parents, achieved the key features defined, and resulted in more infants born ≤30 weeks receiving early therapy services (n = 58/60, 97% compared with n = 44/57, 77%; p < .0001) an average of 85 days earlier, p < .0001, β = −84.7 (–70.2 to −99.2), than historical controls.
Keywords. Part C services, home visiting, neonates, transition, family collaboration and support, disabilities and developmental delays, preterm, NICU
Patil, P., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). Where does Indian medical education stand amidst a pandemic? Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520951606 Show abstract
The recent outbreak of COVID-19, declared a pandemic, has affected medical education globally. The scenario is no different for medical students in India as they find themselves at a crossroads in their careers, with clinical and elective postings called off. Missing out on the opportunity to learn from “first-hand” clinical observation stands to threaten the quality of medical education and learning procured by Indian medical students which is extremely essential to deal with the vast patient load that awaits them in their impending future as healthcare professionals. Is the Indian medical education system being able to cope with the challenges imposed by the increasing burden of COVID-19? The authors propose few administrative and on-ground interventions that must seek to work collectively with all government and private medical institutions in order to help students/interns and residents in coping with stress, anxiety or academic losses incurred due to the pandemic.
Keywords. Education, medical, undergraduate, graduate, pandemic, COVID-19
Floríndez, L. I., Floríndez, D. C., Como, D. H., Secola, R., & Stein Duker, L. I. (2020). Differing interpretations of health care encounters: A qualitative study of non-Latinx health care providers’ perceptions of Latinx patient behaviors. PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0236706. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236706 Show abstract
Introduction. Due to provider shortages, it is probable that non-Latinx health care providers (HCPs) will treat Latinx patients. Because of this discrepancy, both providers and patients are likely to experience barriers and cultural differences during medical encounters. This article discusses select cultural factors and behaviors such as language, communication styles, and health care practices of Latinx families through the lens of their non-Latinx HCPs. The purpose of this study was to examine how non-Latinx HCPs perceive and describe certain behaviors they observe during healthcare visits with Latinx patients and families, and to illustrate how those behaviors can alternatively be interpreted as representing Latinx cultural norms.
Methods. This qualitative study used a template coding approach to examine narrative interviews conducted with 18 non-Latinx HCPs to report how they described interactions with and the behaviors of their Latinx patients. Template codes were based on well-established Latinx cultural norms (e.g., familismo, respeto, personalismo, simpatía, confianza).
Results. Many HCP descriptions of Latinx patient behaviors were coded into the Latinx cultural values categories (familismo, personalismo, simpatía, respeto, and confianza) by the research team. Results suggest that HCPs were not aware of how several of their patients’ behaviors may be culturally grounded, and that cultural differences between HCPs and their Latinx patients may exist.
Discussion. Understanding how Latinx-specific cultural norms may be exhibited by Latinx patients and their families during healthcare encounters has potential to improve providers’ understanding of patient behavior, helping to promote culturally congruent care for Latinxs.
Butera, C., Ring, P., Sideris, J., Jayashankar, A., Kilroy, E., Harrison, L., Cermak, S., & Aziz-Zadeh, L. (2020). Impact of sensory processing on school performance outcomes in high functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Mind, Brain, and Education, 14(3), 243-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12242 Show abstract
Difficulty processing sensory information may impede progress in school for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We explore the relationship between sensory processing and school performance in 26 high‐functioning youths with ASD and 26 controls (age 8–14) using measures of sensory, social, cognitive, and academic functioning. In the ASD group, bivariate Pearson correlations indicated a significant positive relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and the School Competence Scale (SCS) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and a significant negative relationship between Dunn's Sensory Processing Framework and SCS scores. Final hierarchical multiple linear regression model accounting for SCS scores in ASD included IQ, ADHD symptoms, and sensory features. An interaction between increased sensory sensitivity with reduced sensory avoidance behaviors explained the greatest amount of variance in SCS, meaning school performance is lowest for children with greater hypersensitivity and fewer avoidance behaviors. Results indicate a strong impact of sensory processing on school performance in ASD.
Marin-Pardo, O., Laine, C. M., Rennie, M., Ito, K. L., Finley, J., & Liew, S.-L. (2020). A virtual reality muscle–computer interface for neurorehabilitation in chronic stroke: A pilot study. Sensors, 20(13), 3754. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133754 Show abstract
Severe impairment of limb movement after stroke can be challenging to address in the chronic stage of stroke (e.g., greater than 6 months post stroke). Recent evidence suggests that physical therapy can still promote meaningful recovery after this stage, but the required high amount of therapy is difficult to deliver within the scope of standard clinical practice. Digital gaming technologies are now being combined with brain–computer interfaces to motivate engaging and frequent exercise and promote neural recovery. However, the complexity and expense of acquiring brain signals has held back widespread utilization of these rehabilitation systems. Furthermore, for people that have residual muscle activity, electromyography (EMG) might be a simpler and equally effective alternative. In this pilot study, we evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an EMG-based variant of our REINVENT virtual reality (VR) neurofeedback rehabilitation system to increase volitional muscle activity while reducing unintended co-contractions. We recruited four participants in the chronic stage of stroke recovery, all with severely restricted active wrist movement. They completed seven 1-hour training sessions during which our head-mounted VR system reinforced activation of the wrist extensor muscles without flexor activation. Before and after training, participants underwent a battery of clinical and neuromuscular assessments. We found that training improved scores on standardized clinical assessments, equivalent to those previously reported for brain–computer interfaces. Additionally, training may have induced changes in corticospinal communication, as indexed by an increase in 12–30 Hz corticomuscular coherence and by an improved ability to maintain a constant level of wrist muscle activity. Our data support the feasibility of using muscle–computer interfaces in severe chronic stroke, as well as their potential to promote functional recovery and trigger neural plasticity.
Keywords: biofeedback; stroke; brain–computer interface; neurorehabilitation; corticomuscular coherence; electromyography; co-contraction; virtual reality
Kamalakannan, S., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). Occupational therapy: The key to unlocking locked-up occupations during the COVID-19 pandemic [Open Letter]. Wellcome Open Research, 5, 153. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16089.1 Show abstract
Occupations refer to the everyday activities that people do as individuals, in families and with communities to occupy time and bring meaning and purpose to life. It is not always limited to just paid employment. Occupations of the global population have been adversely affected in one way or the other because of this COVID-19 pandemic. Four different key sects of occupations were majorly affected. These are the occupations of those who are or were COVID-positive, occupations of healthy individuals affected by COVID-19/lockdown, occupations of the population highly susceptible and vulnerable of contracting COVID-19 and occupations having a direct impact on global market, supply chain or economy. These occupations were locked up due to the pandemic lockdown. Occupational therapists can scientifically analyse occupations and help formulate exit strategies for the lockdown. They are experts who understand and study the different ways of measuring participation in occupation to develop innovative strategies and therapeutic interventions to facilitate individuals’ engagement in occupations. They can unravel the pragmatic strategies for preventing transmission (physical distancing, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment usage and decontamination) despite engaging in occupations safely and effectively. Nourishing this niche and essential science is pertinent, not just in this pandemic context but also against a backdrop of health and social care research, policy, practice and education for the future.
Keywords. Occupational Science, Occupational Therapy, Covid-19, Pandemic, Lockdown Coronavirus, Activity Analysis, Occupations
Agner, J. (2020). Moving from cultural competence to cultural humility in occupational therapy: A paradigm shift. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(4), 7404347010p1–7404347010p7. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.038067 Show abstract
As the U.S. population becomes increasingly multicultural, occupational therapy practitioners must be adept at working with diverse populations. For the past 15–20 yr, many occupational therapy scholars have recognized this need, and in response, they have promoted cultural competence training. Although cultural competence has provided an important initial conceptual framework for the field, I argue that it is time to move toward a practice of cultural humility, which is defined by flexibility; awareness of bias; a lifelong, learning-oriented approach to working with diversity; and a recognition of the role of power in health care interactions. In this article, I present three main arguments why cultural humility is a more useful and critical conceptual framework than cultural competence, and I review preliminary research that examines the influence of cultural humility on patient experience. I conclude by briefly describing how cultural humility can be incorporated in occupational therapy curricula and applied in clinical and community practice settings.
Keywords. clients, health, occupational therapists, introspection, health personnel
Pineda, R., Liszka, L., & Inder, T. (2020). Early neurobehavior at 30 weeks postmenstrual age is related to outcome at term equivalent age. Early Human Development, 146, 105057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105057 Show abstract
Aims. To determine 1) the relationship between infant medical factors and early neurobehavior, and 2) the relationship between early neurobehavior at 30 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and neurobehavior at term equivalent age.
Study design. In this prospective longitudinal study, 88 very preterm infants born ≤30 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA) had neurobehavioral assessments at 30 weeks PMA using the Premie-Neuro and at term equivalent age using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Evaluation (HNNE).
Results. Lower Premie-Neuro scores at 30 weeks PMA were related to being more immature at birth (p = 0.01; β = 3.87); the presence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA; p < 0.01; β = −16.50) and cerebral injury (p < 0.01; β = −20.46); and prolonged exposure to oxygen therapy (p < 0.01; β = −0.01), endotracheal intubation (p < 0.01; β = −0.23), and total parenteral nutrition (p < 0.01; β = −0.35). After controlling for EGA, PDA, and number of days of endotracheal intubation, lower Premie-Neuro scores at 30 weeks PMA were independently related to lower total HNNE scores at term (p < 0.01; β = 0.12) and worse outcome on the NNNS with poorer quality of movement (p < 0.01; β = 0.02) and more stress (p < 0.01; ß = −0.004), asymmetry (p = 0.01; β = −0.04), excitability (p < 0.01; β = −0.05) and suboptimal reflexes (p < 0.01; ß = −0.06).
Conclusion. Medical factors were associated with early neurobehavioral performance at 30 weeks PMA. Early neurobehavior at 30 weeks PMA was a good marker of adverse neurobehavior at NICU discharge.
Keywords. Preterm; Neurobehavior; Neonatal intensive care unit, outcome, development
Angell, A. M., Goodman, L., Walker, H. R., McDonald, K. E., Kraus, L. E., Elms, E. H., Frieden, L., Jordan Sheth, A., & Hammel, J. (2020). “Starting to live a life”: Understanding full participation for people with disabilities after institutionalization. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(4), 7404205030. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.038489 Show abstract
Importance. A key objective of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is community integration; yet, nearly 30 yr later, little is known about the participation of people with disabilities who transition from institutions to the community.
Objective. To understand how people with disabilities describe full participation after transitioning from an institution to the community and to identify environmental barriers and facilitators to participation during and after this transition.
Design. The ADA–Participatory Action Research Consortium (ADA–PARC), a collaboration among researchers, people with disabilities, and community organizations, is implementing a multimethod, participatory action research study of participation among people with disabilities posttransition. This article presents qualitative findings from semistructured interviews collected as part of the larger ADA–PARC project.
Setting. ADA–PARC community partners across the United States.
Participants. One hundred fifty-three adults with disabilities.
Outcomes and Measures. We used a semistructured interview guide to ask participants about their experiences during and after transition to the community.
Results. We identified four themes: (1) the process of transition as ongoing rather than a single event, (2) access to everyday occupations as full participation and what fully represents “living a life,” (3) environmental barriers to participation, and (4) social identity as participation as the transformative process of moving from the disempowering isolation of the institution to being integrated into the community.
Conclusions and Relevance. As people with disabilities transition into community settings, they require ongoing supports to facilitate their full, long-term participation.
What This Article Adds. People with disabilities reported that transitioning from institutions to the community was itself not enough to support their full community participation; rather, they viewed transition as an ongoing process, and they needed services and supports to fully participate. Occupational therapy practitioners working in institutional and community settings can partner with local disability advocacy communities to support their clients’ sense of identity and self-confidence during and after transition to the community.
Wong, C., Martínez, J., Fagan, B., & Leland, N. E. (2020). Understanding communication between rehabilitation practitioners and nurses: Implications for post-acute care quality. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 39(7), 795-802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464818794148 Show abstract
Objective. This study examined post-acute care (PAC) rehabilitation practitioner’s perspectives on communication.
Method. This is a secondary data analysis of a larger qualitative study, which included PAC rehabilitation provider (n = 99) focus groups that were held in a purposive sample of 13 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs).
Results. Participants emphasized the importance of bidirectional communication between rehabilitation and nursing. Three themes were identified: (a) communication between rehabilitation practitioners and registered nurses or licensed practical nurses, (b) communication between rehabilitation practitioners and certified nursing assistants, and (c) communication between rehabilitation practitioners and nursing leaders. Two subthemes within each of the three themes were further characterized to understand how information was exchanged: (a) static communication and (b) action-oriented communication.
Conclusion. Our findings highlight opportunities for better communication in PAC between rehabilitation practitioners and nursing and thus lay a foundation for future efforts to improve care coordination through enhancing interdisciplinary communication.
Roll, S. C., Hardison, M. E., Vigen, C., & Black, D. S. (2020). Mindful body scans and sonographic biofeedback as preparatory activities to address patient psychological states in hand therapy: A pilot study. Hand Therapy, 25(3), 98-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/1758998320930752 Show abstract
Introduction. Translational evidence for mind–body interventions in hand therapy is limited. This pilot study aimed to determine potential benefits of including a mindful body scan or sonographic biofeedback at the outset of a hand therapy session on key psychological states.
Methods. A randomized, repeated-measures, cross-over design was used to evaluate a mindful body scan and sonographic biofeedback at the outset of a hand therapy session. Measures of pain, anxiety, and stress (i.e. salivary cortisol) were obtained from 21 hand therapy patients at the start, after 20 min, and at the end of each of three 60-min treatments. Trends were examined, and mixed-effects regression compared effects across time within and across the sessions for each of the outcome measures.
Results. For all intervention types, anxiety and stress decreased across the treatment session (p < 0.001); no statistically significant changes were noted in pain. Using either mind–body intervention before standard care resulted in a meaningful decrease and statistical trend toward improvement in stress. The use of a mindful body scan produced an immediate, statistically significant reduction in anxiety (β = − 0.14, p = 0.03), a lowered level that was maintained throughout the therapy session.
Discussion. These data provide preliminary support for integrating mind–body interventions as preparatory activities in hand therapy. Mindful body scans may prepare patients for therapeutic interventions by more quickly reducing anxiety, and the use of either intervention may reduce patient stress more than would occur during a standard care session. These effects should be evaluated in an adequately powered clinical trial.
Keywords. Therapeutics, integrative health, sonography, mindfulness.
Como, D. H., Floríndez, L. I., Tran, C. F., Cermak, S. A., & Stein Duker, L. I. (2020). Examining unconscious bias embedded in provider language regarding children with autism. Nursing and Health Sciences, 22(2), 197-204. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12617 Show abstract
In healthcare settings, language used by healthcare providers can influence provider–patient encounters with individuals with autism spectrum disorder, impacting feelings of stigma and marginalization. This study highlights the unconscious biases healthcare providers might have regarding their patients with autism spectrum disorder and how those beliefs are articulated. Seven pediatric dentists participated in two focus groups to describe strategies to improve oral care for children with autism spectrum disorder. While completing the primary analyses, additional codes emerged related to healthcare provider biases; these data are the focus of this study. Three themes were identified: (i) “healthcare microaggressions” describe how healthcare providers portray their patients in subtly negative ways; (ii) “marginalization” denotes the use of exclusionary language identifying children with autism spectrum disorder as different; and (iii) “preconceptions” include comments that highlight biases about patients. The findings provide insight into the implicit biases that might be held by healthcare providers and how they manifest in language. Despite increased emphasis on cultural competency, healthcare providers might unconsciously use language that could negatively impact patient–provider rapport and increase stigma in already marginalized populations. Further research is necessary to explore how these biases could relate to quality of care.
Nagesh, S., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). Saving the frontline health workforce amidst the COVID-19 crisis: Challenges and recommendations. Journal of Global Health, 10(1), 010345. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010345
Gomes, G. P., Rubin, S., Stein Duker, L. I., Benton, D., Kratky, A., Chen, S. Y., Jordan-Marsh, M., & Gotsis, M. (2020). Healing spaces: feasibility of a multisensory experience for older adults with advanced dementia and their caregivers. Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA), Article 24, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1145/3389189.3392607 Show abstract
Healing Spaces proposes a new approach to multisensory interventions that show potential in ameliorating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of advanced dementia in older adults. Using smart technology, the project combines both digital and physical components to transform spaces and create unified, curated sensory experiences that provide meaningful context for interaction, and are easy for caregivers to deliver. A usability study was conducted for the Healing Spaces app followed by a feasibility evaluation of the full experience in a memory care facility recruiting caregivers, and residents in advanced stages of dementia. The feasibility evaluation successfully illuminated strengths as well as areas for improvement for the Healing Spaces experience in a memory care setting with older adults with advanced dementia. Caregivers and facility managers expressed interest in continuing to use Healing Spaces with the residents of the facility. Lessons learned about the technical and logistical implementation of Healing Spaces are discussed, as well as future directions for study design and potential therapeutic value of the experience.
Pineda, R., Heiny, E., Nellis, P., Smith, J., McGrath, J. M., Collins, M., & Barker, A. (2020). The Baby Bridge program: A sustainable program that can improve therapy service delivery for preterm infants following NICU discharge. PLoS ONE, 15(5), e0233411. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233411 Show abstract
Objective. The aim of this project was to determine revenues and costs over time to assess the sustainability of the Baby Bridge program.
Methods. The Baby Bridge program was developed to promote timely, consistent and high quality early therapy services for high-risk infants following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. Key features of the Baby Bridge program were defined as: 1) having the therapist establish rapport with the family while in the NICU, 2) scheduling the first home visit within one week of discharge and continuing weekly visits until other services commence, 3) conducting comprehensive assessments to inform targeted interventions by a skilled, single provider, and 4) using a comprehensive therapeutic approach while collaborating with the NICU medical team and community therapy providers. The Baby Bridge program was implemented with infants hospitalized in an urban Level IV NICU from January 2016 to January 2018. The number of infants enrolled increased gradually over the first several months to reach the case-load capacity associated with one full-time therapist by mid-2017. Costs of the therapists delivering Baby Bridge services, travel, and equipment were tracked and compared with claim records of participants. The operational cost of Baby Bridge programming at capacity was estimated based on the completed and anticipated claims and reimbursement of therapy services as a means to inform possible scale-ups of the program.
Results. In 2016, the first year of programming, the Baby Bridge program experienced a loss of $26,460, with revenue to the program totaling $11,138 and expenses totaling $37,598. In 2017, the Baby Bridge program experienced a net positive income of $2,969, with revenues to the program totaling $53,989 and expenses totaling $51,020. By Spring 2017, 16 months after initiating Baby Bridge programming, program revenue began to exceed cost. It is projected that cumulative revenue would have exceeded cumulative costs by January 2019, 3 years following implementation. Net annual program income, once scaled up to capacity, would be approximately $16,308.
Discussion. There were initial losses during phase-in of Baby Bridge programming associated with operating far below capacity, yet the program achieved sustainability within 16 months of implementation. These costs related to implementation do not consider the potential cost reduction due to mitigated health burden for the community and families, particularly due to earlier receipt of therapy services, which is an important area for further inquiry.
Chakraborty, S. (2020). Assistive technologies: Addressing the divide between the developed and developing world [Op-ed]. Journal of Science Policy & Governance, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.38126/JSPG160204 Show abstract
Assistive technologies are used to enhance the day-to-day functionality of people with disabilities by improving their quality of life and by reducing the impact of disability in their lives. Various socio-economic, cultural, contextual, medical, personal, and family-related factors determine the feasibility and outcomes of using assistive technologies. While various forms of assistive technologies are being widely used for rehabilitation, recreational, or personal purposes around the world many still remain inaccessible and vastly unaffordable in countries around the world. Literature suggests that, when comparing high income countries with low and lower-middle income countries, differences among the longevity, availability, ease of users, affordability and, most importantly, the recognition of the need for an assistive technology, are common, with those measures lagging in low and lower-middle income countries. Certain targeted interventions have been suggested to provide insight into how discrepancies in promoting the use of assistive technologies between developed and developing nations can be minimised with the goal of reducing the global impacts of disability.
Frolek Clark, G., & Kingsley, K. L. (2020). Occupational therapy practice guidelines for early childhood: birth–5 years. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 7403397010. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.743001 Show abstract
Importance. This Practice Guideline provides stakeholders with a condensed summary of a large number of effectiveness studies. It is a valuable tool for facilitating decision making related to occupational therapy interventions for children ages birth–5 yr.
Objective. Early childhood (birth–5 yr) is a critical period in which the foundation of key life occupations is developed (e.g., eating, dressing, play, learning, social participation, rest and sleep, and chores). The development of cognitive, motor, social–emotional, and self-care skills is important to support these occupations. This Practice Guideline synthesizes recent systematic reviews (SRs) on these areas of development to promote decision making for and high-quality interventions with this population.
Method. Four SRs related to cognition, mental health, motor function, and ADLs analyzed studies published from 2010 to 2017 retrieved from six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, OTseeker, and Cochrane).
Results. A total of 196 articles were included in the SRs, which served as a guide to final clinical recommendations. Case studies describe translation and application to practice.
Conclusions and Recommendations. A variety of interventions within the domain of occupational therapy were found to support the development of cognitive, social–emotional, motor, and self-care skills. Although some of these interventions are typically implemented by occupational therapy practitioners, others can be implemented by parents after training or by teams working in preschool settings. These findings should be used to inform evidence-based practice provided by occupational therapy practitioners working in various early childhood settings.
What This Article Adds. This Practice Guideline gives occupational therapy practitioners clear information about which interventions will be effective for specific outcomes. Better intervention choices mean better outcomes for young children and their families.
Pineda, R., Wallendorf, M., & Smith, J. (2020). A pilot study demonstrating the impact of the supporting and enhancing NICU sensory experiences (SENSE) program on the mother and infant. Early Human Development, 144, 105000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105000 Show abstract
Aim. To explore differences in maternal mental health and infant neurobehavioral outcome among infants who received and did not receive the Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program.
Study design. Eighty preterm infants (50 receiving standard-of-care and 30 receiving the SENSE program) born ≤32 weeks gestation were enrolled within the first week of life in a prospective quasi-experimental design, using a historical control group for comparison. Standard-of-care consisted of tactile (skin-to-skin, touch, holding) and olfactory (scent cloth, close maternal contact) interventions as determined to be appropriate by health care professionals and parents. The SENSE group received specific doses of tactile (skin-to-skin care, holding, massage, touch), auditory (human speech, music), olfactory (scent cloth, close maternal contact), kinesthetic/vestibular (movement, rocking/transfers), and visual (dim or cycled light) exposures, based on the infant's postmenstrual age and tailored to medical status and infant cues according to the SENSE program. The SENSE program includes the intentional delivery of positive, age-appropriate sensory exposures by parents (or a sensory support team, when parents are unavailable) each day of NICU hospitalization. Infant neurobehavioral outcome, as well as maternal mental health and confidence, were assessed prior to NICU discharge, using standardized measures.
Results. Seventy-three infants were included in the final analysis. Mothers whose infants received the SENSE program demonstrated higher scores on the Maternal Confidence Questionnaire (p = 0.01). Infants who received the SENSE program demonstrated less asymmetry on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (p = 0.02; mean difference 0.9) and higher scores on the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Evaluation (p < 0.001; mean difference 4.8).
Discussion. Preliminary evidence demonstrates improvements in maternal confidence and infant neurobehavioral performance following SENSE implementation.
Yao, B., Gan, K., Lee, A., & Roll, S. C. (2020). Comparing shape categorization to circularity measurement in the evaluation of median nerve compression using sonography. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 36(3), 224-232. https://doi.org/10.1177/8756479319898471 Show abstract
Purpose. This study aimed to develop a subjective categorization of nerve shape and to examine the relationship of shape categorizations to measurement of nerve circularity.
Methods. Wrists were evaluated with sonography in healthy participants. Images of the median nerve were obtained in the transverse plane at the level of pisiform with the fingers resting, gripping, and pinching. Nerves were categorized as ovoid, angular, or irregular, and the cross-sectional area and perimeter were measured to calculate nerve circularity.
Results. Across 167 participants, the median nerve shifted from being primarily ovoid at rest to angular shaped when the fingers were in a full fist or pinching. Approximately three-quarters of subjects exhibited a shape change during dynamic movement. Irregular nerves had the lowest circularity values; however, the majority of nerves had similar circularity measures despite having different shapes.
Conclusions. Subjective categorization of shape has the potential to be a valid technique for evaluation of the median nerve using sonography, and this evaluation may provide additional information regarding nerve compression that is not fully captured by a circularity measure. Further investigation is needed to determine how these two techniques may be best used individually or together to advance clinical diagnosis, prevention, and rehabilitative interventions.
Keywords. sonography, carpal tunnel syndrome, median nerve, circularity
Henwood, B. F., Rhoades, H., Lahey, J., Pynoos, J., Pitts, D. B., & Brown, R. T. (2020). Examining fall risk among formerly homeless older adults living in permanent supportive housing. Health and Social Care in the Community, 28(3), 842-849. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12915 Show abstract
Although permanent supportive housing (PSH) has been credited with a decline in the number of chronically homeless adults in the United States since 2007, the extent to which PSH can accommodate the needs of a prematurely aging population, including reducing the likelihood of falls, is unclear. The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of falls with a sample of 237 tenants (45‐ to 80‐year olds) from two PSH programmes in Los Angeles from 1 January 2017 to 10 August 2017. We also explore the location and severity of fall‐related injury using a subsample of 66 tenants. Standard surveys queried demographics, health status, history of homelessness and falls. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the correlates of falling in the past year. More than half of the sample had fallen and more than 40% had multiple falls in the past year. Functional impairment, frailty and persistent pain were all associated with increased fall risk. For the 66 tenants who provided more detailed fall information, more than 40% fell at home and of those nearly half fell in their bathroom. Fall‐related injuries were common, with more than one‐third of the subsample experiencing serious injury. These findings suggest that fall prevention is needed in PSH but that more research is needed to understand the degree to which individual and environmental risk factors are contributing to falls.
Juliano, J. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2020). Transfer of motor skill between virtual reality viewed using a head-mounted display and conventional screen environments. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 17, 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-020-00678-2 Show abstract
Background. Virtual reality viewed using a head-mounted display (HMD-VR) has the potential to be a useful tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. However, when developing tools for these purposes, it is important to design applications that will effectively transfer to the real world. Therefore, it is essential to understand whether motor skills transfer between HMD-VR and conventional screen-based environments and what factors predict transfer.
Methods. We randomized 70 healthy participants into two groups. Both groups trained on a well-established measure of motor skill acquisition, the Sequential Visual Isometric Pinch Task (SVIPT), either in HMD-VR or in a conventional environment (i.e., computer screen). We then tested whether the motor skills transferred from HMD-VR to the computer screen, and vice versa. After the completion of the experiment, participants responded to questions relating to their presence in their respective training environment, age, gender, video game use, and previous HMD-VR experience. Using multivariate and univariate linear regression, we then examined whether any personal factors from the questionnaires predicted individual differences in motor skill transfer between environments.
Results. Our results suggest that motor skill acquisition of this task occurs at the same rate in both HMD-VR and conventional screen environments. However, the motor skills acquired in HMD-VR did not transfer to the screen environment. While this decrease in motor skill performance when moving to the screen environment was not significantly predicted by self-reported factors, there were trends for correlations with presence and previous HMD-VR experience. Conversely, motor skills acquired in a conventional screen environment not only transferred but improved in HMD-VR, and this increase in motor skill performance could be predicted by self-reported factors of presence, gender, age and video game use.
Conclusions. These findings suggest that personal factors may predict who is likely to have better transfer of motor skill to and from HMD-VR. Future work should examine whether these and other predictors (i.e., additional personal factors such as immersive tendencies and task-specific factors such as fidelity or feedback) also apply to motor skill transfer from HMD-VR to more dynamic physical environments.
Laine, C. M., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2020). Parkinson's disease exhibits amplified intermuscular coherence during dynamic voluntary action. Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 204. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00204 Show abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically diagnosed and evaluated on the basis of overt motor dysfunction, however, subtle changes in the frequency spectrum of neural drive to muscles have been reported as well. During dynamic actions, coactive muscles of healthy adults often share a common source of 6–15 Hz (alpha-band) neural drive, creating synchronous alpha-band activity in their EMG signals. Individuals with PD commonly exhibit kinetic action tremor at similar frequencies, but the potential relationship between the intermuscular alpha-band neural drive seen in healthy adults and the action tremor associated with PD is not well-understood. A close relationship is most tenable during voluntary dynamic tasks where alpha-band neural drive is strongest in healthy adults, and where neural circuits affected by PD are most engaged. In this study, we characterized the frequency spectrum of EMG synchronization (intermuscular coherence) in 16 participants with PD and 15 age-matched controls during two dynamic motor tasks: (1) rotation of a dial between the thumb and index finger, and (2) dynamic scaling of isometric precision pinch force. These tasks produce different profiles of coherence between the first dorsal interosseous and abductor pollicis brevis muscles. We sought to determine if alpha-band intermuscular coherence would be amplified in participants with PD relative to controls, if such differences would be task-specific, and if they would correlate with symptom severity. We found that relative to controls, the PD group displayed amplified, but similarly task-dependent, coherence in the alpha-band. The magnitude of coherence during the rotation task correlated with overall symptom severity as per the UPDRS rating scale. Finally, we explored the potential for our coherence measures, with no additional information, to discriminate individuals with PD from controls. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) indicated a clear separation between groups (AUC = 0.96), even though participants with PD were on their typical medication and displayed only mild-moderate symptoms. We conclude that a task-dependent, intermuscular neural drive within the alpha-band is amplified in PD. Its quantification via intermuscular coherence analysis may provide a useful tool for detecting the presence of PD, or assessing its progression.
Aldrich, R. M., & Laliberte Rudman, D. (2020). Occupational therapists as street-level bureaucrats: Leveraging the political nature of everyday practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 87(2), 137-143. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008417419892712 Show abstract
Background. As front-line service providers who often work in systems regulated by governmental bodies, occupational therapists can be conceptualized as “street-level bureaucrats” (Lipsky, 1980/2010) who effect and are affected by policy.
Purpose. Drawing on understandings from a study of long-term unemployment, this article proposes that occupational therapists, as street-level bureaucrats, respond to inter-related policies and systems in ways that can perpetuate, resist, or transform opportunities for doing and being.
Key Issues. By highlighting practitioners’ everyday negotiation of governmental, organizational, and professional power relations, the notion of street-level bureaucracy illuminates the political nature of practice as well as the possibilities and boundaries that policy can place on ideal forms and outcomes of practice.
Implications. Framing occupational therapists as street-level bureaucrats reinforces practitioners’ situatedness as political actors. Mobilizing this framing can enhance awareness of occupational therapists’ exercise of discretion, which can be investigated as a basis for occupation-focused and emancipatory forms of practice.
Keywords. Occupational therapy, Policy, Practice, Street level; Bureaucratie de la rue, Ergothérapie, Politique, Pratique
Hand, B. N., Angell, A. M., Harris, L., & Carpenter, L. A. (2020). Prevalence of physical and mental health conditions in Medicare-enrolled, autistic older adults. Autism, 24(3), 755-764. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361319890793 Show abstract
While there is emerging evidence on the prevalence of physical and mental health conditions among autistic adults, less is known about this population’s needs during older adulthood (aged 65+). We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study of 2016–2017 Medicare data to compare the prevalence of physical and mental health conditions in a national sample of autistic older adults (N = 4685) to a matched population comparison (N = 46,850) cohort. Autistic older adults had significantly greater odds of nearly all physical health conditions including epilepsy (odds ratio = 18.9; 95% confidence interval = 17.2–20.7), Parkinson’s disease (odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 5.3–7.0), and gastrointestinal conditions (odds ratio = 5.2; 95% confidence interval = 4.9–5.5). Most mental health conditions were more common among autistic older adults, including schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (odds ratio = 25.3; 95% confidence interval = 22.4–28.7), attention deficit disorders (odds ratio = 24.4; 95% confidence interval = 16.2–31.0), personality disorders (odds ratio = 24.1; 95% confidence interval = 17.8–32.5), and suicidality or self-inflicted injury (odds ratio = 11.1; 95% confidence interval = 8.9–13.8). Health conditions commonly associated with advanced age in the general population (e.g. osteoporosis, cognitive disorders, heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis) were also significantly more common among autistic older adults. By highlighting the significant physical and mental health needs for which autistic older adults require care, our findings can inform healthcare systems, healthcare providers, and public health initiatives seeking to promote well-being in this growing population.
Pineda, R., Prince, D., Reynolds, J., Grabill, M., & Smith, J. (2020). Preterm infant feeding performance at term equivalent age differs from that of full-term infants. Journal of Perinatology, 40, 646–654. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-020-0616-2 Show abstract
Objective. To identify differences in feeding skill performance among preterm infants at term equivalent age compared with full-term infants.
Study design. Ninety-two infants (44 preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestation at term equivalent age and 48 full-term infants within 4 days of birth) had a standardized oral feeding assessment.
Result. Preterm infants at term equivalent age had lower Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment scores (67.8 ± 13.6 compared with 82.2 ± 8.1; p < 0.001) and were more likely to have poor arousal (p = 0.04), poor tongue positioning (p = 0.04), suck–swallow–breathe discoordination (p < 0.001), inadequate sucking bursts (p = 0.01), tonal abnormalities (p < 0.001), discoordination of the jaw and tongue during sucking (p < 0.001), lack of positive engagement with the feeder and/or discomfort (p < 0.001), signs of aspiration (p < 0.001), difficulty regulating breathing (p < 0.001), and have an inability to maintain an appropriate state (p < 0.001), and complete the feeding (p < 0.001).
Conclusion. A broad range of feeding-related difficulties appear to remain evident in preterm infants at term equivalent age.
Takata, S. C., Hardison, M. E., & Roll, S. C. (2020). Fostering holistic hand therapy: Emergent themes of client experiences of mind–body interventions. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 40(2), 122-130. https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449219888835 Show abstract
Mind–body interventions are a viable holistic approach to rehabilitation; however, evidence for mind–body approaches in hand therapy is lacking. This study explored the experiences of clients with musculoskeletal disorders undergoing two mind–body interventions within hand therapy. Qualitative data were obtained from clients who received mindfulness meditation and sonographic biofeedback as part of hand therapy. Semi-structured interviews conducted after four therapy sessions elicited participants’ experiences and acceptability. Emergent themes were identified through an iterative, qualitative descriptive process. The following three themes emerged as results: insight on the body, relaxation and relief, and I am in control. A fourth theme was identified in the acceptability data, that is, mindfulness as a meaningful activity. At least one of the interventions was acceptable to each participant. Positive participant experiences support further consideration of mind–body interventions as a useful holistic approach in hand therapy to support wellness, quality of care, and participation in recovery.
Keywords. therapeutics, hand therapy, integrative medicine, mindfulness, biofeedback
Sentell, T., Agner, J., Pitt, R., Davis, J., Guo, M., & McFarlane, E. (2020). Considering health literacy, health decision making, and health communication in the social networks of vulnerable new mothers in Hawai‘i: A pilot feasibility study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2356. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072356 Show abstract
Health literacy is understudied in the context of social networks. Our pilot study goal was to consider this research gap among vulnerable, low-income mothers of minority ethnic background in the state of Hawai‘i, USA. Recruitment followed a modified snowball sampling approach. First, we identified and interviewed seven mothers (“egos”) in a state-sponsored home visiting program. We then sought to interview individuals whom each mother said was part of her health decision-making network (“first-level alters”) and all individuals whom the first-level alters said were part of their health decision-making networks (“second-level alters”). Health literacy was self-reported using a validated item. A total of 18 people were interviewed, including all mothers (n = 7), 35% of the first-level alters (n = 7/20), and 36% of the second-level alters (n = 4/11). On average, the mothers made health decisions with 2.9 people (range: 1-6); partners/spouses and mothers/mothers-in-law were most common. One mother had low health literacy; her two first-level alters also had low health literacy. Across the full sample, the average number of people in individuals’ health decision networks was 2.5 (range: 0–7); 39% of those interviewed had low health literacy. This can inform the design of future studies and successful interventions to improve health literacy.
Keywords. health literacy; social networks; health communication; native Hawaiian mothers; Filipino mothers; low-income mothers
Thompson, P. M., Jahanshad, N., Ching, C. R., Salminen, L. E., Thomopoulos, S. I., Bright, J., Baune, B. T., Bertolín, S., Bralten, J., Bruin, W. B., Bülow, R., Chen, J., Chye, Y., Dannlowski, U., de Kovel, C. G., Donohoe, G., Eyler, L. T., Faraone, S. V., Favre, P., Filippi, C. A., Frodl, T., Garijo, D., Gil, Y., Grabe, H. J., Grasby, K. L., Hajek, T., Han, L. K., Hatton, S. N., Hilbert, K., Ho, T. C., Holleran, L., Homuth, G., Hosten, N., Houenou, J., Ivanov, I., Jia, T., Kelly, S., Klein, M., Kwon, J. S., Laansma, M. A., Leerssen, J., Lueken, U., Nunes, A., O'Neill, J., Opel, N., Piras, F., Piras, F., Postema, M. C., Pozzi, E., Shatokhina, N., Soriano-Mas, C., Spalletta, G., Sun, D., Teumer, A., Tilot, A. K., Tozzi, L., van der Merwe, C., Van Someren, E. J., van Wingen, G. A., Völzke, H., Walton, E., Wang, L., Winkler, A. M., Wittfeld, K., Wright, M. J., Yun, J.-Y., Zhang, G., Zhang-James, Y., Adhikari, B. M., Agartz, I., Aghajani, M., Aleman, A., Althoff, R. R., Altmann, A., Andreassen, O. A., Baron, D. A., Bartnik-Olson, B. L., Bas-Hoogendam, J. M., Baskin-Sommers, A. R., Bearden, C. E., Berner, L. A., Boedhoe, P. S., Brouwer, R. M., Buitelaar, J. K., Caeyenberghs, K., Cecil, C. A., Cohen, R. A., Cole, J. H., Conrod, P. J., De Brito, S. A., de Zwarte, S. M., Dennis, E. L., Desrivieres, S., Dima, D., Ehrlich, S., Esopenko, C., Fairchild, G., Fisher, S. E., Fouche, J.-P., Francks, C., Frangou, S., Franke, B., Garavan, H. P., Glahn, D. C., Groenewold, N. A., Gurholt, T. P., Gutman, B. A., Hahn, T., Harding, I. H., Hernaus, D., Hibar, D. P., Hillary, F. G., Hoogman, M., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Jalbrzikowski, M., Karkashadze, G. A., Klapwijk, E. T., Knickmeyer, R. C., Kochunov, P., Koerte, I. K., Kong, X.-Z., Liew, S.-L., Lin, A. P., Logue, M. W., Luders, E., Macciardi, F., Mackey, S., Mayer, A. R., McDonald, C. R., McMahon, A. B., Medland, S. E., Modinos, G., Morey, R. A., Mueller, S. C., Mukherjee, P., Namazova-Baranova, L., Nir, T. M., Olsen, A., Paschou, P., Pine, D. S., Pizzagalli, F., Rentería, M. E., Rohrer, J. D., Sämann, P. G., Schmaal, L., Schumann, G., Shiroishi, M. S., Sisodiya, S. M., Smit, D. J., Sønderby, I. E., Stein, D. J., Stein, J. L., Tahmasian, M., Tate, D. F., Turner, J. A., van den Heuvel, O. A., van der Wee, N. J., van der Werf, Y. D., van Erp, T. G., van Haren, N. E., van Rooij, D., van Velzen, L. S., Veer, I. M., Veltman, D. J., Villalon-Reina, J. E., Walter, H., Whelan, C. D., Wilde, E. A., Zarei, M., & Zelman, V. (2020). ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries. Translational Psychiatry, 10, 100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1 Show abstract
This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of “big data” (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA’s activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.
Cogan, A. M., McCaughey, V. K., & Scholten, J. (2020). Gender differences in outcomes after traumatic brain injury among service members and veterans. PM&R, 12(3), 301-314. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12237 Show abstract
This scoping study describes the range of outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies of military service members and veterans addressing gender differences. A secondary purpose is to identify differences in outcomes between male and female participants in such studies. We searched PubMed, CiNAHL, and PsycInfo databases for relevant articles. Two reviewers independently screened results. Of 822 unique titles and abstracts screened for eligibility, 55 full articles were reviewed, with 29 studies meeting full inclusion criteria. Twenty of the 29 included studies used retrospective designs and all but two used data collected from Veterans Affairs or Department of Defense health care settings. TBI was diagnosed by self-report, screening, and evaluation procedures, and medical record documentation. Ten different outcome categories were identified among the included studies. In general, female service members and veterans have not been well represented in TBI outcomes research. Evidence suggests that female veterans with mild TBI (mTBI) report more neurobehavioral symptoms and use more outpatient services than male veterans. Studies also indicate that female veterans with TBI are more frequently diagnosed with depression. Additional research is essential to support precision treatment recommendations for female veterans with TBI, as women represent a growing proportion of the patients served by the Veterans Health Administration.
Kingsley, K., Sagester, G., & Weaver, L. L. (2020). Interventions supporting mental health and positive behavior in children ages birth–5 yr: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 7402180050. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.039768 Show abstract
Importance. It is critical for providers to use evidence-based interventions to address mental health and behavioral barriers to occupational performance during early childhood.
Objective. To identify evidence-based interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to improve mental health and positive behavior for children ages 0–5 yr and their families.
Data Sources. PsycINFO, Cochrane, ERIC, MEDLINE, and OTseeker databases were searched for publications from 2010 through March 2017.
Study Selection and Data Collection. This review was completed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed for each article using either A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) or the Cochrane method. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were critically appraised.
Findings. Forty-six articles met inclusion criteria and were organized into three themes: touch-based interventions (n = 9), parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT; n = 4), and instruction-based interventions (n = 33). Statistically significant findings and overall risk of bias supported the use of touch-based interventions, PCIT, and parent training.
Conclusions and Relevance. The evidence indicates that touch-based interventions can improve infant self-regulation (strong), social behavior, and attachment (moderate) and reduce maternal stress, anxiety, and depression (low). Moderate-strength evidence supports PCIT to improve child behavior. The evidence indicates that parent training can improve parent behavior, maternal–infant attachment (strong), and parent mental health (moderate). Teacher training can improve mental health and behavior (moderate). Group-based parent training and sleep training have insufficient support (low).
What This Article Adds. Occupational therapy professionals working with children younger than age 5 yr can use the results of this systematic review to guide clinical decision making related to mental health and behavioral outcomes.
Barnard, A. M., Riehl, S. L., Willcocks, R. J., Walter, G. A., Angell, A. M., & Vandenborne, K. (2020). Characterizing enrollment in observational studies of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by race and ethnicity. Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases, 7(2), 167-173. https://doi.org/10.3233/JND-190447 Show abstract
Observational research benefits from inclusion of diverse cohorts. To characterize racial and ethnic diversity in observational and natural history research studies of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), highly cited and influential observational studies were identified. Fourteen United States-based articles were included. All studies cited >70% White participants with the majority having few racial minority participants. Enrollment of Black/African American individuals was particularly limited (<5% in all but one study), and Hispanic/Latino participants ranged from 3.3– 26.5% of cohorts. These results suggest a need for effective strategies to recruit, enroll, and retain racially and ethnically diverse populations into observational research in DMD.
Juliano, J. M., Spicer, R. P., Vourvopoulos, A., Lefebvre, S., Jann, K., Ard, T., Santarnecchi, E., Krum, D. M., & Liew, S.-L. (2020). Embodiment Is related to better performance on a brain–computer interface in immersive virtual reality: A pilot study. Sensors, 20(4), 1204. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041204 Show abstract
Electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) for motor rehabilitation aim to “close the loop” between attempted motor commands and sensory feedback by providing supplemental information when individuals successfully achieve specific brain patterns. Existing EEG-based BCIs use various displays to provide feedback, ranging from displays considered more immersive (e.g., head-mounted display virtual reality (HMD-VR)) to displays considered less immersive (e.g., computer screens). However, it is not clear whether more immersive displays improve neurofeedback performance and whether there are individual performance differences in HMD-VR versus screen-based neurofeedback. In this pilot study, we compared neurofeedback performance in HMD-VR versus a computer screen in 12 healthy individuals and examined whether individual differences on two measures (i.e., presence, embodiment) were related to neurofeedback performance in either environment. We found that, while participants’ performance on the BCI was similar between display conditions, the participants’ reported levels of embodiment were significantly different. Specifically, participants experienced higher levels of embodiment in HMD-VR compared to a computer screen. We further found that reported levels of embodiment positively correlated with neurofeedback performance only in HMD-VR. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that embodiment may relate to better performance on EEG-based BCIs and that HMD-VR may increase embodiment compared to computer screens.
Keywords: brain–computer interface; neurofeedback; immersive virtual reality; head-mounted display; electroencephalography; presence; embodiment
Grajo, L. C., Laverdure, P., Weaver, L. L., & Kingsley, K. (2020). Becoming critical consumers of evidence in occupational therapy for children and youth [Editorial]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 7402170020. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.742001 Show abstract
This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy on interventions for children and youth highlights the current developments in and evidence for the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions and psychometric properties of assessments for children and youth. In this guest editorial, we identify various factors that challenge the implementation of evidence-based strategies in daily clinical practice. We assert that scholars, educators, and practitioners need to address several strategic steps. To facilitate critical consumption of evidence in practice, efforts need to be made to build capacity for evidence production and evidence use through implementation science and to ensure that evidence-based practice is not only taught but also reflectively applied across the educational curriculum and that clinicians are given more access to resources that are easy to translate to daily clinical practice.
Carandang, K., Vigen, C. L., Ortiz, E., & Pyatak, E. A. (2020). Re-conceptualizing functional status through experiences of young adults with inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatology International, 40(2), 273-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-019-04368-8 Show abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of inflammatory arthritis on young adults’ activity participation using quantitative and qualitative methods to advance the field’s conceptualization of functional status. Young adults diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis completed (1) the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index to determine functional status and (2) the day reconstruction method to explore experiential dimensions of function, including functional performance, functional satisfaction, and severity of arthritis symptoms during activities on the previous day. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine relationships between functional status, experiential variables, and demographic variables. Open-ended questions were provided for participants to report ways that arthritis affected their participation that were not otherwise reflected within survey questions; responses were numerically coded using summative content analysis. Among 37 participants (24.8 ± 3.3 years old), 70% reported moderate-to-severe disability. On average, participants experienced pain, stiffness, or fatigue for more than 50% of their waking hours. Functional status significantly correlated with functional performance (r = − 0.39, p = 0.02) and satisfaction (r = − 0.39, p = 0.02), yet did not correlate with stiffness or fatigue severity or duration of symptoms throughout the day. Participants described strategies that improved their ability to participate in certain activities but reduced their overall quality of activity engagement and caused emotional distress. Young adults with arthritis may experience more significant functional limitations than previously reported. Traditional measures of functional assessment may not capture experiential components of activity that affect participation, such as severity of stiffness or fatigue or the duration of symptoms throughout the day.
Keywords. Health status, Quality of life, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Young adult, Patient reported outcome
Agner, J., Pirkle, C. M., Irvin, L., Maddock, J. E., Buchthal, O. V., Yamauchi, J., Starr, R., & Sentell, T. (2020). The Healthy Hawai‘i Initiative: insights from two decades of building a culture of health in a multicultural state. BMC Public Health, 20, 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8078-1 Show abstract
Background. The Healthy Hawai‘i Initiative was created in 2000 with tobacco settlement funds as a theory-based statewide effort to promote health-supporting environments through systems and policy change. Still active today, it is imbedded explicitly in a multi-sectoral, social ecological approach, effectively striving to build a culture of health before this was the name for such an ambitious effort.
Methods. From interviews with key informants, we analyze two decades of the Healthy Hawai‘i Initiative (HHI) in the context of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Culture of Health Action Framework (CHAF). We list HHI accomplishments and examine how the Initiative achieved notable policy and environmental changes supportive of population health.
Results. The Healthy Hawai‘i Initiative started with an elaborate concept-mapping process that resulted in a common vision about making “the healthy choice the easiest choice.” Early on, the Initiative recognized that making health a shared value beyond the initial stakeholders required coalition and capacity building across a broad range of governmental and nonprofit actors. HHI coalitions were designed to promote grassroots mobilization and to link community leaders across sectors, and at their height, included over 500 members across all main islands of the state. Coalitions were particularly important for mobilizing rural communities. Additionally, the Initiative emphasized accessibility to public health data, published research, and evaluation reports, which strengthened the engagement to meet the shared vision and goals between diverse sector partners and HHI. Over the past two decades, HHI has capitalized on relationship building, data sharing, and storytelling to encourage a shared value of health among lawmakers, efforts which are believed to have led to the development of health policy champions. All of these factors combined, which centered on developing health as a shared value, have been fundamental to the success of the other three action areas of the CHAF over time.
Conclusions. This evidence can provide critical insights for other communities at earlier stages of implementing broad, diverse, multifaceted system change and fills a key evidence gap around building a culture of health from a mature program in a notably multicultural state.
Cogan, A. M., Weaver, J. A., McHarg, M., Leland, N. E., Davidson, L., & Mallinson, T. (2020). Association of length of stay, recovery rate, and therapy time per day with functional outcomes after hip fracture surgery. JAMA Network Open, 3(1), e1919672. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19672 Show abstract
Importance. Medicare is shifting from payment for postacute care services based on the volume provided to payment based on value as determined by patient characteristics and functional outcomes. Matching therapy time and length of stay (LOS) to patient needs will be critical to optimize functional outcomes and manage costs.
Objective. To investigate the association among therapy time, LOS, and functional outcomes for patients following hip fracture surgery.
Design, Setting, and Participants. This retrospective cohort study analyzed data on patients from 4 inpatient rehabilitation facilities and 7 skilled nursing facilities in the eastern and midwestern United States. Participants were patients aged 65 years or older who received inpatient rehabilitation services for hip fracture and had Medicare fee-for-service as their primary payer. Data were collected from 2005 to 2010. Analysis was conducted from November 2018 to June 2019.
Exposure. Therapy minutes per LOS day.
Main Outcomes and Measures. Functional Independence Measure mobility and self-care measures at discharge. Patients were categorized into 9 recovery groups based on low, medium, or high therapy minutes per LOS day and low, medium, or high rate of functional gain per day.
Results. A total of 150 patients (101 [67.3%] female; 148 [98.6%] white; mean [SD] age, 82.0 [7.3] years) met inclusion criteria. Participants in all gain and therapy minutes per LOS day trajectories were similar in function at rehabilitation admission (mean [SD] mobility, 16.2 [3.2]; F8,141 = 1.26; P = .27) but differed significantly at discharge (mean [SD] mobility, 23.9 [5.2]; F8,141 = 14.34; P < .001). High-gain patients achieved mobility independence by discharge; low-gain patients needed assistance on nearly all mobility tasks. Medium-gain patients with a mean LOS of 27 days were independent in mobility at discharge; those with a mean LOS less than 21 days needed supervision with toilet transfers and were dependent with stairs. Length of stay and functional gain rate explained much of the variance in mobility and self-care scores at discharge. Although medium– and high–therapy minutes per LOS day groups were statistically significant in the regression model (β = 6.99; P = .001; and β = 11.46; P = .007, respectively), they explained only 1% of the variance in discharge outcome. Marginal means suggest that medium-gain patients with shorter LOS would have achieved mobility independence if LOS had been extended.
Conclusions and Relevance. In this study, rate of recovery and LOS in skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities were associated with mobility and self-care outcomes at discharge following hip fracture surgery, particularly for medium-gain patients. Therapy time per day explained only 1% of the variance in discharge outcome. Discharging medium-gain patients before 21 days LOS may transfer burden of care to family and caregivers, home health, and outpatient services.
Raymond, J. K., Reid, M. W., Fox, S., Garcia, J. F., Miller, D., Bisno, D., Fogel, J. L., Krishnan, S., & Pyatak, E. A. (2020). Adapting home telehealth group appointment model (CoYoT1 clinic) for a low SES, publicly insured, minority young adult population with type 1 diabetes. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 88, 105896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2019.105896 Show abstract
As more individuals from diverse backgrounds are diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the need to address resulting disparities in diabetes outcomes among these populations also escalates. Although young adulthood proves challenging for all patients with diabetes, young adults (YA) from racial/ethnic minorities and low socioeconomic backgrounds face even greater T1D management obstacles. The poorer outcomes in these populations drive an urgent need for alternative care models to improve YA's engagement in their T1D clinical care and address barriers to improved health outcomes. Previous telemedicine initiatives for T1D have yielded positive diabetes care results, especially in YA, offering one promising way to reach this high-risk population. To serve these patients better, an established and successful home telehealth group appointment model, “CoYoT1 Clinic” (Colorado Young Adults with T1D), was adapted to provide care to YA with T1D at a large urban children's hospital in Southern California. At this location, ~70% of patients have public/no insurance, and 85% are racial/ethnic minorities. In this paper, we report the process of adapting the CoYoT1 Clinic model and designing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate its efficacy. The adapted model uses meticulous study-design methods that incorporate patient advisors, quantitative and qualitative data collection, collaboration with local stakeholders, intervention development, and patient randomization into a factorial design analyzing telemedicine versus in-person and patient-centered versus standard care. The new model addresses the needs of high-risk YA in Southern California, with the goal of increasing access to care, improving follow-up frequency, and strengthening patient and provider satisfaction.
Keywords. Young adults; Telehealth; Group appointments; Type 1 diabetes; Shared medical appointments; Telemedicine
Floríndez, L. I., Carlson, M. E., Pyatak, E., Blanchard, J., Cogan, A. M., Sleight, A. G., Hill, V., Díaz, J., Blanche, E., Garber, S. L., & Clark, F. A. (2020). A qualitative analysis of pressure injury development among medically underserved adults with spinal cord injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 42(15), 2093-2099. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1552328 Show abstract
Purpose. Medically underserved adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain at high risk of incurring medically serious pressure injuries even after receiving education in prevention techniques. The purpose of this research is to identify circumstances leading to medically serious pressure injury development in medically underserved adults with SCI during a lifestyle-based pressure injury prevention program, and provide recommendations for future rehabilitation approaches and intervention design.
Methods. This study entailed a qualitative secondary case analysis of treatment notes from a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 25 community-dwelling, medically underserved adults with SCI who developed medically serious pressure injuries during the course of the intervention of the RCT.
Results and conclusions. Among the 25 participants, 40 unique medically serious pressure injuries were detected. The six themes related to medically serious pressure injury development were: (1) lack of rudimentary knowledge pertaining to wound care; (2) equipment and supply issues; (3) comorbidities; (4) non-adherence to prescribed bed rest; (5) inactivity; and (6) circumstances beyond the intervention’s reach. Together, these factors may have undermined the effectiveness of the intervention program. Modifications, such as assessing health literacy levels of patients prior to providing care, providing tailored wound care education, and focusing on equipment needs, have potential for altering future rehabilitation programs and improving health outcomes.
Keywords. Spinal cord injuries, pressure injury, lifestyle, intervention, cultural diversity
Pineda, R., Liszka, L., Kwon, J., & Wallendorf, M. (2020). Interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(2), 7402205050. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.039578 Show abstract
Importance. Few neonatal feeding assessments are currently available, and the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment is the only one that identifies feeding impairment while considering the developmental changes that occur from preterm birth to term-equivalent age.
Objective. To determine the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment.
Design. Prospective, observational study.
Setting. Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit.
Participants. A convenience sample of 7 neonatal therapists participated in reliability testing. For concurrent validity, a prospective cohort of 52 preterm infants born ≤32 wk gestation had feeding assessed at term-equivalent age.
Outcomes and Measures. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) and Fleiss’s κ statistics were used to define reliability across therapists, who independently scored five videos of preterm infants orally feeding using the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment. Concurrent validity was determined by evaluating relationships between the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) and the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment using an independent-samples t test and χ2 analysis.
Results. The ICC for the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment total score was 0.90 (confidence interval [CI] [0.70, 0.99]). Fleiss’s κ scores for the 19 scorable items on the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment had predominately moderate, fair, and slight agreement, with 3 items having poor agreement. Dysfunctional NOMAS scores were related to lower Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment scores (t[49.4] = 3.72, mean difference = 12.2, 95% CI [5.60, 18.75], p = .001).
Conclusions and Relevance. The Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment has excellent reliability. Concurrent validity was established.
What This Article Adds. This article reports that the final version of the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment (Version 5.7) has excellent interrater and concurrent validity and is an important tool to assess the occupation of infant feeding in clinical practice.
Pineda, R., Muñoz, R., Chrzastowski, H., Dunsirn-Baillie, S., Wallendorf, M., & Smith, J. (2020). Maternal milk and relationships to early neurobehavioral outcome in preterm infants. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 34(1), 72-79. https://doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000460 Show abstract
The purpose of this study was to (1) define medical and sociodemographic factors related to maternal milk feedings and (2) explore relationships between maternal milk feeding and early neurobehavioral outcome. Ninety-two preterm infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestation had maternal milk feeding and breastfeeding tracked in this retrospective analysis. At 34 to 41 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), neurobehavior was assessed with the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Maternal milk feeding was often delayed by the use of total parenteral nutrition, administered for a median of 11 (7-26) days, impacting the timing of gastric feeding initiation. Seventy-nine (86%) infants received some maternal milk during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Twenty-one (27%) infants continued to receive maternal milk at 34 to 41 weeks PMA, with 10 (48%) of those receiving maternal milk exclusively. Among mothers who initiated maternal milk feeds, 20 (25%) put their infants directly at the breast at least once during hospitalization. Mothers who were younger (P = .02), non-Caucasian (P < .001), or on public insurance (P < .001) were less likely to provide exclusive maternal milk feedings by 34 to 41 weeks PMA. Infants who received maternal milk at 34 to 41 weeks PMA demonstrated better orientation (P = .03), indicating they had better visual and auditory attention to people and objects in the environment. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between maternal milk feedings and better neurobehavior, which is evident before the infant is discharged home from the NICU.
Acuña, C. Y., Gutiérrez, J., & Blanche, E. I. (2020). Impacto del Programa Grupal Interdisciplinario de Intervención Temprana Enriquecido Sensorialmente en el progreso de niños con retraso en el desarrollo [Impact of the Sensory Enriched Early Intervention Interdisciplinary Group Program in the Progress of Children with Developmental Delay]. Revista Argentina de Terapia Ocupacional, 6(1), 13-19. Show abstract
Se realizó una réplica de un estudio anterior1, en el marco del desarrollo de tesis de especialización. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo determinar el impacto en el progreso de niños con retrasos en el de- sarrollo, del Programa Grupal Interdisciplinario de Intervención Temprana Enriquecido Sensorialmente (ISEEI). Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de 186 niños con retraso en el desarrollo que iniciaron entre los 18 y los 36 meses, dicho Programa llevado a cabo en Estados Unidos. Los niños fueron evaluados con BayleyIII, y reevaluados entre los 3 a 9 meses posteriores. Los resultados revelan que al momento de la reevaluación la mayoría de los niños alcanzan puntajes escalares superiores a los obtenidos al momento de la admisión, expresando un progreso positivo. El 76% de los niños mostró puntajes más altos en 2 o más áreas reevaluadas. Es posible afirmar que el Programa Grupal de Intervención Temprana Sensorialmente Enriquecido es efectivo. Esta experiencia evidencia la necesidad de enfocar los esfuerzos en la prevención primaria, intervención temprana, detección y diagnóstico precoz. En ese sentido, la creación de progra- mas con estas características, ajustados a las necesidades poblacionales de los países de América Latina podrían contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida de niños con desafíos en el desarrollo y sus familias.
A replication of an earlier study was carried out, within the framework of the development of specialty thesis. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact on the progress of children with developmental delays, based on the Group Interdisciplinary Program for Early Sensory Intervention (ISEEI). A retrospective review of 186 clinical charts of children with developmental delays that participated in the program between the age of 18 and 36 months in the United States was completed. The children were evaluated with the Bayley III and reevaluated 3 to 9 months later. The results revealed that at re-evaluation, most children reach higher scores than when admitted. Seventy six percent of the children selected showed higher scores in 2 or more areas. It is possible to affirm that the Sensory-Enriched Early Intervention Group Program for Children with Developmental Disabilities is highly effective. This experience demonstrates the need to focus efforts on primary prevention, early intervention, detection and early diagnosis. In that sense, the creation of programs with these characteristics, adjusted to the needs of the population of Latin American countries, could contribute to improving the quality of life of children with development challenges and their families.
Acuña, C. Y., Gutiérrez, J., & Blanche, E. I. (2020). La evaluación en el proceso de intervención de Terapia Ocupacional desde el enfoque de Integración Sensorial: Estudio descriptivo de los resultados obtenidos en la aplicación de diferentes instrumento [The evaluation in the process of intervention of Occupational Therapy from the approach of Sensory Integration: Descriptive study of the results obtained in the application of different evaluation instruments]. Revista Argentina de Terapia Ocupacional, 6(1), 50-56. Show abstract
La evidencia científica acerca de la efectividad de la intervención en integración sensorial es lo que valida la práctica clínica, de ahí la importancia de sistematizar los procesos de evaluación. En Latinoamérica, la validez y confiabilidad de la mayoría de las evaluaciones no han sido estableci- das mediante estudios empíricos, lo que dificulta el análisis, diseño y medición de la efectividad de la intervención. El objetivo central del presente trabajo es medir la efectividad de herramientas de evaluación durante la intervención de terapia ocupacional en una población latinoamericana. Se evaluaron 27 niños de Argentina de 3.0 a 11.5 años, con MFUN (Escala de Función y Participa- ción) (Miller, 2006), Beery VMI (Prueba de Desarrollo de Integración Visual-Motor) (Beery y Beery, 2010), y Perfil Sensorial II (Dunn, 2014). Los resultados de MFUN (Escala de Función y Participa- ción) (Miller, 2006) y Beery VMI (Prueba de Desarrollo de Integración Visual-Motor) (Beery y Beery, 2010) mostraron cambios positivos en los usuarios, lo que podría evidenciar que pese a no estar estudiadas en la población argentina, podrían ser sensibles a los avances de los usuarios en trata- miento. Por el contrario, el Perfil Sensorial II (Dunn, 2014), aunque no es capaz de mostrar progre- sos, parece evidenciar cambios en lo que los padres/cuidadores son capaces de percibir respecto del desempeño del niño ante las demandas y desafíos sensoriales del entorno. Esta tendencia se observó también en una muestra de 7 niños en Estados Unidos, mismo país de la población en la que fue validado el instrumento. Por lo que, si bien el Perfil Sensorial aporta información valiosa, es visible la necesidad de utilizar diferentes herramientas de evaluación que complementen la observación clínica y la entrevista a la familia.
Scientific evidence about the effectiveness of sensory integration intervention validates clinical practice, hence the importance of systematizing the evaluation processes. In Latin America, the validity and reliability of most evaluations have not been established through empirical studies, making it difficult to analyze, design and measure the effectiveness of different interventions. The objective of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of three evaluation tools during the occupational therapy intervention in an Argentine population. Children from Argentina from 3.0 to 11.5 years old were evaluated using the M-FUN (Function and Participation Scales) (Miller, 2006), the Beery VMI (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration) (Beery & Beery, 2010) and the Sensory Profile II (Dunn, 2014). The results of the M-FUN (Function and Participation Scales) (Miller, 2006) and the Beery VMI (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration) (Beery & Beery, 2010) showed positive changes in the users despite the fact that they have not being studied in Argentine samples. Thus, they could be sensitive to the progress as a result of therapeutic intervention. On the other hand, the Sensory Profile Il (Dunn, 2014), although not designed to measure progress, seems to show changes in what parents/caregivers are able to perceive about the child's performance in response to the sensory demands and challenges in different environments. This trend was also observed in a sample of 7 children in the United States where the instrument was developed. Therefore, although the Sensory Profile provides valuable information, there is a need to use performance based measures that supplement data gathered by family interviews and parental questionnaires.
Dieterle, C. (2020). The case for environmentally-informed occupational therapy: Clinical and educational applications to promote personal wellness, public health and environmental sustainability. World Federation of Occupational Therapists Bulletin, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14473828.2020.1717055 Show abstract
Research shows that personal and public health are intrinsically intertwined with ecological conditions and that actions that promote environmental sustainability are good prescriptions for health and wellness. I call this awareness and its implications for occupational therapists ‘environmentally-informed occupational therapy’ (EIOT). EIOT is an approach to occupational therapy founded in the growing body of scientific evidence that demonstrates that what is good for the environment is good for human health and well-being. It looks to nature to inform interventions and helps occupational therapists support their clients, students and communities to make lifestyle choices that contribute to their personal health while protecting and ideally enhancing the environment, e.g. while reducing global warming, preserving natural resources, preventing biodiversity loss, and more. Clinical and educational examples of EIOT are described.
Yang, C. Y., Tseng, M. H., Cermak, S. A., Lu, L., & Shieh, J. Y. (2020). Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 7402205060. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.036566 Show abstract
Importance: In Chinese-speaking societies, a reliable and valid measure is needed to enable early identification of young children’s challenges in sensory processing.
Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP–C) when used with Taiwanese children.
Design: Prospective study.
Setting: Multiple settings.
Participants: Participants were 367 typically developing (TD) infants ages 0–6 mo (mean [M] age = 3.44 mo, standard deviation [SD] = 1.82) and 677 toddlers ages 7–36 mo (M age = 22.33 mo, SD = 8.15), along with 42 toddlers with developmental disabilities (DD; M age = 28.4 mo, SD = 6.7).
Outcomes and Measures: The ITSP, a caregiver questionnaire that measures how children respond to sensory events in daily life, was translated and cross-culturally adapted into a Chinese version (ITSP–C).
Results: Internal consistency was high for the 0–6 mo subscale (α = .80) and the 7–36 mo subscale (α = .82). Test–retest reliability was excellent for the 7–36 mo subscale (intraclass correlation coefficient = .94). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the ITSP–C discriminated between children with DD and TD children.
Conclusions and Relevance: The ITSP was successfully adapted to Chinese with similar reliability and validity to the original ITSP. The 7–36 mo subscale had a higher level of reliability than the 0–6 mo subscale, and quadrant scores were more reliable than section scores. Moreover, the ITSP–C discriminated children with DD from TD children on the basis of their sensory processing patterns.
What This Article Adds: The ITSP–C has sound psychometric properties and support for its use in early identification of sensory processing difficulties in young Chinese-speaking children.
Lista, C., & Blanche, E. I. (2020). Diferencias en el procesamiento táctil en niños con diagnóstico de autismo y niños típicos entre 4.0 años y 5.11 años. Validez de una medida de evaluación del procesamiento táctil [Differences in tactile processing in children diagnosed with autism and typical children between 4.0 years and 5.11 years. Validity of a measurement measure of tactile processing]. Revista Argentina de Terapia Ocupacional, 6(1), 45-49. Show abstract
Objetivo. Establecer las propiedades psicométricas de una Evaluación de Procesamiento Táctil para niños con autismo, un nuevo instrumento de medición que tiene como objetivo identificar problemas de procesamiento táctil en niños. Método. El estudio piloto y la validación del instrumento Evaluación de Procesamiento Táctil se llevó a cabo a partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura y encuesta a los expertos en el tema, se retiraron los ítems que los expertos no consideraron que representaban al sistema táctil, quedando un total de 21 ítem. Se determinaron 3 categorías de ítem y la puntuación de la evaluación. Se administró la evaluación a 30 niños de desarrollo típico y 30 niños con diagnóstico de autismo entre 4.0 y 5.11 años. Se analizaron los resultados de ambos grupos comparativamente. Resultados. De los 21 ítem originales, 13 ítem mostraron una diferencia significativa entre puntajes totales obtenidos de niños típicos y niños con diagnóstico de autismo. Se desestimaron 8 ítem por no mostrar una diferencia significativa en los puntajes de los totales obtenidos de los niños típicos y con diagnóstico de autismo. La evidencia generada apoya la inclusión de esta evaluación para suplementar los cuestionarios y entrevistas a los padres y maestros que se utilizan actualmente en la práctica clínica. Se exploran además limitaciones y direcciones futuras de esta investigación.
Goal. To establish the psychometric proprieties of the Tactile Processing Assessment for children with autism. It is a new measuring instrument that aims to identify tactile processing problems in children. Method. The Tactile Processing Assessment was developed and validated from systematic literature review and a survey of experts in the field. All items that experts did not consider representative of the tactile system were removed, leaving a total of 21 items. The items were applied on 3 body parts: face, arms and legs. The assessment was administrated to 30 typically developing children and 30 children diagnosed with autism between the ages of 4.0 and 5.11 years. The results of both groups were analyzed comparatively. Results. From the original 21 items, 13 items showed a significant difference between the total scores obtained from typical children and children diagnosed with autism. 8 items were dismissed because they did not show a significant difference between the total scores obtained from typical children and children with a diagnosis of autism. The evidence generated supports the inclusion of this assessment to supplement the questionnaires and interviews for parents and teachers that are currently used in clinical practice. Further limitations and future direction of this research are explored.