Julie McLaughlin Gray PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA(she/her/hers)
Associate Chair for Curriculum and Faculty, Director of the China Initiative and Professor of Clinical Occupational Therapy
Dr. Julie McLaughlin Gray is Associate Chair for Curriculum and Faculty in the USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, as well as the director of the Chan Division’s China Initiative. She has been an occupational therapist for more than 30 years and has extensive clinical experience in stroke and brain injury rehabilitation and has done extensive training and teaching in the Neurodevelopmental Treatment Approach for adults with hemiplegia.
She received her bachelor’s degree in occupational therapy from San Jose State University. She later received a master’s degree in occupational therapy and a PhD in occupational science from the University of Southern California. Her doctoral research in occupational science examined the personal experience and complex process of recovery from stroke and their relationship to occupation. Dr. Gray’s publications within the occupational therapy and occupational science literature address dynamic systems and occupation, defining the phenomenon of occupation, occupation-centered practice and the relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to occupational therapy and occupational science.
Dr. Gray currently oversees the academic programs in the Chan Division as well as the development of occupational therapy practice and education in China through the establishment of a dual-degree program with Peking University Health Science Center. She was named a Fellow of the American Occupational Therapy Association in 2015.
Dr. McLaughlin Gray is interested in stroke and brain injury rehabilitation and recovery, particularly concerning the survivor’s experience and the emotional consequences of stroke, as well as the multiple ways in which occupation can be used to promote recovery.
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
in Occupational Science
2006 | University of Southern California
Master of Arts (MA)
in Occupational Therapy
1995 | University of Southern California
Bachelor of Arts (BA)
in Occupational Therapy
1984 | San Jose State University
Liu, Y., Zemke, R., Liang, L., & McLaughlin Gray, J. (2021). Occupational harmony: Embracing the complexity of occupational balance. Journal of Occupational Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2021.1881592 Show abstract
Occupational balance is a central concept in occupational science, but it is complex and lacks an agreed-upon definition. Further, the concept has not been given significant attention by scholars outside Western societies. Building upon traditional Chinese culture and Chinese scholars’ Human Complex System Theory, this article presents a proposed Model of Occupational Harmony, offering an Eastern understanding of how the orchestration of everyday occupations relates to health and well-being. The notion of occupational harmony highlights harmonious human-environment transactions as the essence of the phenomenon and integrates multiple perspectives in previous occupational balance literature, including activity patterns, time use, occupational characteristics, need satisfaction, and biological rhythms. It is asserted that occupational harmony can be characterized as complex equilibria among three pairs of two-sided occupational characteristics and achieved via harmony among five dimensions of occupational engagement and coherence across multiple levels of human-environment transactions. This article is a beginning theoretical conceptualization of occupational harmony, allowing occupational scientists to embrace the complexity of the orchestration of occupational engagement.
Keywords. Occupational science, Occupational balance, Culture, Occupational engagement, Systems theory
Fukumura, Y. E., McLaughlin Gray, J., Lucas, G. M., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Worker perspectives on incorporating artificial intelligence into office workspaces: Implications for the future of office work. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 1(4), 1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041690 Show abstract
Workplace environments have a significant impact on worker performance, health, and well-being. With machine learning capabilities, artificial intelligence (AI) can be developed to automate individualized adjustments to work environments (e.g., lighting, temperature) and to facilitate healthier worker behaviors (e.g., posture). Worker perspectives on incorporating AI into office workspaces are largely unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore office workers’ views on including AI in their office workspace. Six focus group interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Interview questions were designed to generate discussion on benefits, challenges, and pragmatic considerations for incorporating AI into office settings. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Two primary constructs emerged. First, participants shared perspectives related to preferences and concerns regarding communication and interactions with the technology. Second, numerous conversations highlighted the dualistic nature of a system that collects large amounts of data; that is, the potential benefits for behavior change to improve health and the pitfalls of trust and privacy. Across both constructs, there was an overarching discussion related to the intersections of AI with the complexity of work performance. Numerous thoughts were shared relative to future AI solutions that could enhance the office workplace. This study’s findings indicate that the acceptability of AI in the workplace is complex and dependent upon the benefits outweighing the potential detriments. Office worker needs are complex and diverse, and AI systems should aim to accommodate individual needs.
Keywords. workspace; office work; computer workstations; artificial intelligence
Fukumura, Y. E., McLaughlin Gray, J., Lucas, G., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Office worker perspective on an artificial intelligence workstation: A qualitative study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Supplement_2), 7512505154. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.75S2-RP154 Show abstract
Accepted for AOTA INSPIRE 2021 but unable to be presented due to online event limitations.
This study explored office workers' perspectives on including artificial intelligence (AI) in their office workspace. Following an iterative analysis of six focus-group interviews with a total of 45 participants, three constructs emerged. Rich discussions demonstrated how acceptability of an AI workstation is complex and affected by the person, context, and their occupations.
Gray, J. M., Frank, G., & Roll, S. C. (2017). Integrating musculoskeletal sonography into rehabilitation: Therapists' experiences with training and implementation. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 37(1), 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449216681275 Show abstract
Musculoskeletal sonography is rapidly extending beyond radiology; however, best practices for successful integration into new practice contexts are unknown. This study explored non-physician experiences with the processes of training and integration of musculoskeletal sonography into rehabilitation. Qualitative data were captured through multiple sources, and iterative thematic analysis was used to describe two occupational therapists' experiences. The dominant emerging theme was competency, in three domains: technical, procedural, and analytical. In addition, three practice considerations were illuminated: (a) understanding imaging within the dynamics of rehabilitation, (b) navigating nuances of interprofessional care, and (c) implications for post-professional training. Findings indicate that sonography training for rehabilitation providers requires multi-level competency development and consideration of practice complexities. These data lay a foundation on which to explore and develop best practices for incorporating sonographic imaging into the clinic as a means for engaging clients as active participants in the rehabilitation process to improve health and rehabilitation outcomes.
Gray, J. M., Coker-Bolt, P., Gupta, J., Hissong, A., Hartmann, K. D., & Kern, S. B. (2015). Importance of interprofessional education in occupational therapy curricula. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(Suppl. 3), 6913410020p1-6913410020p14. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.696S02
Roll, S. C., Gray, J. M., Frank, G., & Wolkoff, M. (2015). Exploring occupational therapists' perceptions of the usefulness of musculoskeletal sonography in upper-extremity rehabilitation [Brief report]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(4), 6904350020p1-6904350020p6. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.016436 Show abstract
Objective. To identify the potential utility of musculoskeletal sonographic imaging in upper-extremity rehabilitation.
Method. Two occupational therapists in an outpatient hand rehabilitation clinic were recruited by convenience, were trained in the use of sonography, and implemented sonographic imaging in their clinical practice. Qualitative data were obtained during and after the implementation period by means of questionnaires and interviews. Data collection, analysis, and interpretation were completed in an iterative process that culminated in a thematic analysis of the therapists' perceptions.
Results. The data indicate four potential areas of utility for musculoskeletal sonography in upper-extremity rehabilitation: (1) mastering anatomy and pathology, (2) augmenting clinical reasoning, (3) supplementing intervention, and (4) building evidence.
Conclusion. Numerous potential uses were identified that would benefit both therapist and client. Further exploration of complexities and efficacy for increasing patient outcomes is recommended to determine best practices for the use of musculoskeletal sonography in upper-extremity rehabilitation.
Roll, S. C., McLaughlin Gray, J., Frank, G., & Wolkoff, M. (2015). Therapist perceptions of the utility of sonographic imaging in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders [Poster presented at the 2015 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo, Nashville, TN]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(Suppl. 1), 6911515064p1. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.69S1-PO2093 Show abstract
Sonography is a relatively inexpensive imaging modality that provides real-time, dynamic views of anatomical structures. This session will discuss the results of a qualitative descriptive study that revealed a wide range of uses for sonography by occupational therapists.
Roll, S. C., Gray, J. M., & Frank, G. (2015). Competency development and complexities of clinical integration of musculoskeletal sonography by non-physician rehabilitation providers [Paper presented at the 2015 AIUM Annual Convention and Preconvention Program Hosting WFUMB Congress]. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 41(Suppl. 4), S20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.12.124 Show abstract
Objectives. Non-physician rehabilitation providers (e.g., occupational/physical therapists) have requisite expertise for effective use of point-of-care musculoskeletal sonography (MSKUS); however, professional curriculums provide only introductory-level image interpretation, at best. This multi-method study evaluated post-professional competency development and the complexities of clinical integration of MSKUS by non-physician rehabilitation providers.
Methods. Three occupational therapists (OTs) received weekly, 2-3 hour, hands-on training from a RMSK-credentialed OT for 3 months. Training included ultrasound physics, imaging protocols, image acquisition, optimization and analysis. Prior to implementing MSKUS in the hand therapy clinic, minmum competency for selecting protocols, acquiring and interpreating images was determined using patient scenerios. During a 10-month implementation, therapists self-rated competency in image acquisition and interpretation on a 10-point visual analogue scale following each MSKUS use. Data were divided into early, mid, and late time periods to evaluate competency development. Semi-structured interviews throughout and following implementation provided deeper understanding of the complexities of clinical integration. Three researchers identified themes through interative anlaysis of interview transcripts and multiple consensus meetings.
Results. Competency for acquiring images significantly increased (p < .05) between the early and mid phase (4.9 to 6.9), whereas competency for image interpretation did not show a significant increase until the late phase (5.8 to 7.6). Qualitative themes included numerous technical competencies nested within real-time interaction with the client, as well as perceived clinical use and professional constraints.
Conclusions. Utilization of MSKUS by non-physician rehabilitation providers diverged from diagnostic techniques to patient-centered applications (e.g., education, biofeedback). Post-professional MSKUS training programs for these providers will require an unique approach to address the various nested competencies and clinical considerations that differ from training provided to physicians and sonographers.
Schultz-Krohn, W., Pope-Davis, S. A., Jourdan, J. M., & Gray, J. M. (2013). Traditional sensorimotor approaches to intervention. In H. M. Pendleton & W. Schultz-Krohn (Eds.), Pedretti's occupational therapy: Practice skills for physical dysfunction (7th ed., pp. 796-830). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Full text
Gonyea, J. S., & Gray, J. M. (2012). Making the transition to career in occupational therapy: Student perspectives. The Advisor: Journal of the National Association of Advisors for the Health Professions, 32(4), 20-23. Full text
Flinn, N. A., Jackson, J. M., Gray, J. M., & Zemke, R. (2008). Optimizing abilities and capacities: Range of motion, strength, and endurance. In M. V. Radomski & C. A. T. Latham (Eds.), Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction (6th ed., pp. 573-597). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Full text
Gray, J. M. (2001). Optimizing abilities and capacities: Range of motion, strength, and endurance. In C. A. Trombly & M. V. Radomski (Eds.), Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction (5th ed., pp. 463-480). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gray, J. M. (2001). Discussion of the ICIDH-2 in relation to occupational therapy and occupational science. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 8(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/110381201300078465
Gray, J. M. (1998). Putting occupation into practice: Occupation as ends, occupation as means. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(5), 354-364. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.52.5.354 Show abstract
This article addresses a difficulty that many occupational therapists experience: maintaining occupation as the core of their therapeutic intervention. This difficulty not only results from but also contributes to occupational therapy's struggle with professional identity. Current manifestations of the problem are described as component-driven practice and the narrowing of occupation to basic activities of daily Living. The concepts of occupation as ends and occupation as means are proposed as a practical solution to guide treatment planning and merge remediation and adaptation within a single occupational session. Each concept is investigated in terms of its history within the profession and its usefulness for analyzing and solving therapeutic problems. These concepts are discussed as useful guidelines to help occupational therapists not only in their clinical decision making but also in their understanding and expression of the field's unique expertise. A case example, applying occupation as ends and occupation as means to evaluation and treatment, is presented.
Phenomenology began as a movement in philosophy that deals with the essences of objects, or phenomena as they present themselves in human consciousness. The founding father of phenomenology, Husserl, believed that through rigorous examination of objects, as they are presented in one’s consciousness, a person could come to intuitively know the essence of those objectivities, or realities. He proposed that other disciplines might benefit from phenomenology as a way of identifying the main objectivities with which the discipline deals, before undertaking other inquiry. The phenomenological method outlines the steps of such an investigation. This paper uses the steps of the phenomenological method to explore the essence of occupation.
Gray, J. M., Kennedy, B. L., & Zemke, R. (1996). Application of dynamic systems theory to occupation. In R. Zemke & F. Clark (Eds.), Occupational science: The evolving discipline (pp. 297-324). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.