University of Southern California
University of Southern California
Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy
Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy
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Florence Clark PhD, FAOTA

Florence Clark PhD, FAOTA

Professor Emeritus of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy

Biography

Florence Clark is a widely published and cited scholar renowned for co-founding the scholarly discipline of occupational science and for leading, first as Acting Chair in 1988 and then as Chair from 1989 to 2017, the USC Department (now a Division) of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy. She earned her BA degree in English from the State University of New York at Albany, her MS degree in Occupational Therapy from the State University of New York at Buffalo, and her PhD degree in Education from the University of Southern California, focusing in the areas of psychometrics and special education. She has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Indianapolis and from The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn.

Dr. Clark joined USC’s faculty in 1976 as an assistant professor. Since 1985 she has attracted more than $10 million in extramural funding from the NIH National Institute on Aging, the NIH National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) and other federal agencies for research and training in the areas of healthy aging and the secondary conditions that impede the flourishing of people with disabilities in their real life circumstances. Dr. Clark’s research programs in healthy aging and in the prevention of pressure ulcers in persons with spinal cord injury have followed a blueprint for translational research which she first developed with colleagues in connection with the USC Well Elderly Study.

Initiated in 1993, the Well Elderly Study was a randomized controlled trial which demonstrated that preventive occupational therapy forestalls the declines associated with typical aging and improves the health of independently living elders. The study results were published in the prestigious Journal of the American Medical Association. In 2004, Dr. Clark received a second large research award to conceptually replicate the original Well Elderly results and document the mediating mechanisms responsible for the intervention’s positive effects.

In 2003, in collaboration with colleagues from Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, Dr. Clark received a NIDRR field-initiated research grant to identify the contextual factors that led to recurrent pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. This study completed the first step in the application of the blueprint to a specific life-threatening problem for people with spinal cord injury. In 2008, Dr. Clark received a $3 million NIH-funded grant to conduct a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the intervention and products that were developed through NIDRR funding.

Appointed as a charter member of the Academy of Research of the American Occupational Therapy Foundation (AOTF), she has served as special consultant to the United States Army Surgeon General, been on the board of the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and was the 1993 recipient of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectureship Award, the occupational therapy profession’s highest academic honor. In 1999, AOTA honored Dr. Clark with the Award of Merit and in 2001 she received a lifetime achievement award from the Occupational Therapy Association of California. In 2004, she received the USC Presidential Medallion from USC President Steven Sample, the ultimate honor for those who have brought honor and distinction upon USC.

She was elected to national office as AOTA Vice President from 2007-2010 and as AOTA President from 2010-2013. In 2014 she was installed as the inaugural holder of the Mrs. T.H. Chan Professorship in Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy. In 2015 she was inducted into Phi Kappa Phi, the USC’s prestigious all-university, membership-only honor society. In 2017, after more than 27 years as Chair, she stepped down from her administrative duties, and she officially retired in 2018.

Education

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Education
1982 | University of Southern California

Master of Science (MS) in Occupational Therapy
1970 | State University of New York at Buffalo

Bachelor of Arts (BA) in English
1968 | State University of New York at Albany

Publications

2019

Journal Articles

Carlson, M., Vigen, C. L., Rubayi, S., Blanche, E. I., Blanchard, J., Atkins, M., Bates-Jensen, B., Garber, S. L., Pyatak, E. A., Díaz, J., Floríndez, L. I., Hay, J. W., Mallinson, T., Unger, J. B., Azen, S. P., Scott, M., Cogan, A., & Clark, F. (2019). Lifestyle intervention for adults with spinal cord injury: Results of the USC-RLANRC Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 42(1), 2–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2017.1313931 Show abstract

Floríndez, L. I., Carlson, M. E., Pyatak, E., Blanchard, J., Cogan, A. M., Sleight, A. G., Hill, V., Díaz, J., Blanche, E., Garber, S. L., & Clark, F. A. (2019). A qualitative analysis of pressure injury development among medically underserved adults with spinal cord injury. Disability and Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1552328 Show abstract

Sleight, A. G., Cogan, A. M., Hill, V. A., Pyatak, E. A., Díaz, J., Floríndez, L. I., Blanchard, J., Vigen, C., Garber, S. L., & Clark, F. A. (2019). Factors protecting against pressure injuries in medically underserved adults with spinal cord injury: A qualitative study. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 25(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.1310/sci2501-31 Show abstract

2018

Journal Articles

Juang, C., Knight, B. G., Carlson, M., Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Vigen, C., & Clark, F. A. (2018). Understanding the mechanisms of change in a lifestyle intervention for older adults. The Gerontologist, 58(2), 353–361. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw152 Show abstract

2017

Journal Articles

Fogelberg, D. J., Leland, N. E., Blanchard, J., Rich, T. J., & Clark, F. A. (2017). Qualitative experience of sleep in individuals with spinal cord injury. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 37(2), 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449217691978 Show abstract

Sainburg, R. L., Liew, S.-L., Frey, S. H., & Clark, F. (2017). Promoting translational research among movement science, occupational science, and occupational therapy. Journal of Motor Behavior, 49(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2016.1271299 Show abstract

2016

Journal Articles

Cogan, A. M., Blanchard, J., Garber, S. L., Vigen, C. L., Carlson, M., & Clark, F. A. (2016). Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(7), 871-880. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215516660855 Show abstract

Fogelberg, D. J., Powell, J. M., & Clark, F. A. (2016). The role of habit in recurrent pressure ulcers following spinal cord injury. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 23(6), 467-476. https://doi.org/10.3109/11038128.2015.1130170 Show abstract

Leland, N. E., Fogelberg, D., Sleight, A., Mallinson, T., Vigen, C., Blanchard, J., Carlson, M., & Clark, F. (2016). Napping and nighttime sleep: Findings from an occupation-based intervention. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(4), 7004270010p1-7. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.017657 Show abstract

2015

Books

Clark, F. A., Blanchard, J., Sleight, A., Cogan, A., Eallonardo, L., Floríndez, L., Gleason, S., Heymann, R., Hill, V., Holden, A., Jackson, J. M., Mandel, D. R., Murphy, M., Proffitt, R., Niemiec, S. S., Vigen, C., & Zemke, R. (2015). Lifestyle redesign: The intervention tested in the USC Well Elderly Studies (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association. Full text Show abstract

Journal Articles

Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Carlson, M., Martínez, J., Guzman, L., Mahajan, A., & Clark, F. (2015). Developing occupation-based preventive programs for late-middle-aged Latino patients in safety-net health systems. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(6), 6906240010p1-6906240010p11. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.015958 Show abstract

Sleight, A., & Clark, F. A. (2015). Unlocking the core self: Mindful occupation for cancer survivorship. Journal of Occupational Science, 22(4), 477-487. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2015.1008025 Show abstract

Ghaisas, S., Pyatak, E. A., Blanche, E., Blanchard, J., & Clark, F. (2015). Lifestyle changes and pressure ulcer prevention in adults with spinal cord injury in the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study Lifestyle Intervention. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(1), 6901290020p1-6901290020p10. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2015.012021 Show abstract

2014

Journal Articles

Cogan, A. M., Blanche, E. I., Díaz, J., Clark, F. A., & Chun, S. (2014). Building a framework for implementing new interventions. OTJR: Occupation, Participation, and Health, 34(4), 209-220. https://doi.org/10.3928/15394492-20141009-01 Show abstract

Wilcox, R. R., Granger, D. A., Szanton, S., & Clark, F. A. (2014). Diurnal patterns and associations among salivary cortisol, DHEA and alpha-amylase in older adults. Physiology & Behavior, 129, 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.02.012 Show abstract

Carlson, M., Jackson, J., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Holguin, J., Lai, M. Y., Marterella, A., Vigen, C., Gleason, S., Lam, C., Azen, S., & Clark, F. (2014). Predictors of retention among African American and Hispanic older adult research participants in the Well Elderly 2 randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 33(3), 357-382. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464812471444 Show abstract

Wilcox, R. R., Granger, D. A., Szanton, S., & Clark, F. A. (2014). Cortisol diurnal patterns, associations with depressive symptoms, and the impact of intervention in older adults: Results using modern robust methods aimed at dealing with low power due to violations of standard assumptions. Hormones and Behavior, 65(3), 219-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.01.005 Show abstract

Clark, F., Pyatak, E. A., Carlson, M., Blanche, E. I., Vigen, C., Hay, J., Mallinson, T., Blanchard, J., Unger, J. B., Garber, S. L., Díaz, J., Floríndez, L. I., Atkins, M., Rubayi, S., & Azen, S. P. (2014). Implementing trials of complex interventions in community settings: The USC-Rancho Los Amigos Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS). Clinical Trials, 11(2), 218-229. https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774514521904 Show abstract

Wilcox, R. R., Erceg-Hurn, D. M., Clark, F. A., & Carlson, M. E. (2014). Comparing two independent groups via the lower and upper quantiles. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 84(7), 1543-1551. https://doi.org/10.1080/00949655.2012.754026 Show abstract

Carlson, M., Park, D. J., Kuo, A., & Clark, F. (2014). Occupation in relation to the self. Journal of Occupational Science, 21(2), 117-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2012.727356 Show abstract

Mallinson, T., Schepens Niemiec, S. L., Carlson, M., Leland, N., Vigen, C., Blanchard, J., & Clark, F. (2014). Development and validation of the activity significance personal evaluation (ASPEn) scale. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 61(6), 384-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12155 Show abstract

2013

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A., Jackson, J., & Pyatak, E. A. (2013). Developing an integrated occupational science research program: The USC Well Elderly and Pressure Ulcer Prevention studies. In D. Pierce (Ed.), Occupational science for occupational therapy (pp. 291-310). Thorofare, NJ: Slack. Full text

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2013). As viewed from above: Connectivity and diversity in fulfilling occupational therapy's Centennial Vision [Farewell presidential address]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(6), 624-632. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.676003

Wilcox, R. R., Granger, D. A., & Clark, F. A. (2013). Modern robust statistical methods: Basics with illustrations using psychobiological data. Universal Journal of Psychology, 1(2), 21-31. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujp.2013.010201 Show abstract

Carlson, M. E., Kuo, A., Chou, C., & Clark, F. A. (2013). Relationship of global self-evaluations of activity to psychosocial and health-related aging outcomes. OTJR: Occupation, Participation, and Health, 33(4), 180-189. https://doi.org/10.3928/15394492-20130712-01 Show abstract

Pyatak, E. A., Blanche, E. I., Garber, S. L., Díaz, J., Blanchard, J., Floríndez, L., & Clark, F. A. (2013). Conducting intervention research among underserved populations: Lessons learned and recommendations for researchers. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(6), 1190-1198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.12.009 Show abstract

Wilcox, R. R., Carlson, M. E., Azen, S. P., & Clark, F. A. (2013). Avoid lost discoveries, because of violations of standard assumptions, by using modern robust statistical methods. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 66(3), 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.09.003 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Park, D. J., & Burke, J. P. (2013). Dissemination: Bringing translational research to completion. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), 185-193. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.006148 Show abstract

2012

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2012). Beyond high definition: Attitude and evidence bringing OT in HD–3D [Presidential address]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(6), 644-651. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.666002

Clark, F. A., Jackson, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Chou, C. P., Cherry, B. J., Jordan-Marsh, M., Knight, B. G., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Granger, D. A., Wilcox, R. R., Lai, M. Y., White, B. A., Hay, J. W., Lam, C., Marterella, A., & Azen, S. P. (2012). Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in promoting the well-being of independently living older people: Results of the Well Elderly 2 Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(9), 782-790. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.099754 Show abstract

Chang, M. C., Parham, L. D., Blanche, E. I., Schell, A., Chou, C.-P., Dawson, M., & Clark, F. A. (2012). Autonomic and behavioral responses of children with autism to auditory stimuli. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(5), 567-576. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.004242 Show abstract

2011

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A. (2011). Occupation embedded in a real life: Interweaving occupational science and occupational therapy [1993 Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture]. In R. Padilla & Y. Griffiths (Eds.), A professional legacy: The Eleanor Clarke Slagle lectures in occupational therapy, 1955-2010 (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press. Full text Show abstract

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2011). High-definition occupational therapy's competitive edge: Personal excellence is the key [Presidential address]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(6), 616-622. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2011.656001

Blanche, E. I., Fogelberg, D., Díaz, J., Carlson, M. E., & Clark, F. A. (2011). Manualization of occupational therapy interventions: Illustrations from the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Research Program. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(6), 711-719. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2011.001172 Show abstract

Werner, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Jordan-Marsh, M., & Clark, F. A. (2011). Predictors of computer use in community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older adults. Human Factors, 53(5), 431-447. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720811420840 Show abstract

Vaishampayan, A., Clark, F. A., Carlson, M. E., & Blanche, E. I. (2011). Preventing pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury: Targeting risky life circumstances through a community-based interventions. Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 24(6), 275-284. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000398663.66530.46 Show abstract

Carlson, M. E., Wilcox, R. R., Chou, C. P., Chang, M., Yang, F., Blanchard, J., Marterella, A., Kuo, A., & Clark, F. A. (2011). Psychometric properties of reverse-scored items on the CES-D in a sample of ethnically diverse older adults. Psychological Assessment, 23(2), 558-562. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022484 Show abstract

Other Articles

Clark, F. A. (2011, November 14). White coat ceremonies [Perspectives]. OT Practice, 16(20), 22-23. Full text

2010

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2010). Power and confidence in professions: Lessons for occupational therapy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77(5), 264-269. https://doi.org/10.2182/cjot.2010.01.77.5.2 Show abstract

Eakman, A. M., Carlson, M. E., & Clark, F. A. (2010). The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A measure of engagement in personally valued activities. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 70(4), 299-317. https://doi.org/10.2190/AG.70.4.b Show abstract

Eakman, A. M., Carlson, M. E., & Clark, F. A. (2010). Factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity of the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey for older adults. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 30(3), 111-121. https://doi.org/10.3928/15394492-20090518-01 Show abstract

Jackson, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Rubayi, S., Scott, M. D., Atkins, M. S., Blanche, E. I., Saunders-Newton, C. D., Mielke, S. E., Wolfe, M. K., & Clark, F. A. (2010). Qualitative study of principles pertaining to lifestyle and pressure ulcer risk in adults with spinal cord injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(7), 567-578. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638280903183829 Show abstract

2009

Journal Articles

Fogelberg, D., Atkins, M., Blanche, E. I., Carlson, M. E., & Clark, F. A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas in everyday life: Daily use of wheelchairs by individuals with spinal cord injury and the impact on pressure ulcer risk. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 15(2), 16-32. https://doi.org/10.1310/sci1502-16 Show abstract

Dunn, C. A., Carlson, M. E., Jackson, J. M., & Clark, F. A. (2009). Response factors surrounding progression of pressure ulcers in community-residing adults with spinal cord injury. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(3), 301-309. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.63.3.301 Show abstract

Jackson, J. M., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Carlson, M. E., Cherry, B. J., Azen, S. P., Chou, C. P., Jordan-Marsh, M., Forman, T., White, B. A., Granger, D., Knight, B. G., & Clark, F. A. (2009). Confronting challenges in intervention research with ethnically diverse older adults: The USC Well Elderly II Trial. Clinical Trials, 6(1), 90-101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774508101191 Show abstract

2008

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A. (2008). Foreword. In L. D. Parham & L. S. Fazio (Eds.), Play in occupational therapy for children (2nd ed., pp. ix-x). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Full text

Clark, F. A., & Lawlor, M. C. (2008). The making and mattering of occupational science. In E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn, & B. A. B. Schell (Eds.), Willard & Spackman’s occupational therapy (11th ed., pp. 2-14). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

2007

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., Reingold, F. S., & Salles-Jordan, K. (2007). Obesity and occupational therapy [Position paper]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(6), 701-703. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.61.6.701 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Sanders, K., Carlson, M. E., Blanche, E. I., & Jackson, J. M. (2007). Synthesis of habit theory. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 27(4), S7-S23. Full text Show abstract

Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Spruijt-Metz, D., Reynolds, K. D., Clark, F. A., Palmer, P. H., Gallaher, P., Sun, P., Guo, Q., & Johnson, C. S. (2007). Socio-demographic and economic correlates of overweight status in Chinese adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 31(4), 339-352. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.31.4.1 Show abstract

2006

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., Jackson, J. M., Scott, M. D., Carlson, M. E., Atkins, M. S., Uhles-Tanaka, D., & Rubayi, S. (2006). Data-based models of how pressure ulcers develop in daily-living contexts of adults with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(11), 1516-1525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.08.329 Show abstract

Clark, F. A. (2006). One person’s thoughts on the future of occupational science. Journal of Occupational Science, 13(2-3), 167-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2006.9726513 Show abstract

Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Spruijt-Metz, D., Reynolds, K. D., Clark, F. A., Palmer, P. H., Gallaher, P., Sun, P., Guo, Q., & Anderson, J. C. (2006). Weight perception, academic performance, and psychological actors in Chinese adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(2), 115-124. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.30.2.1 Show abstract

Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Spruijt-Metz, D., Reynolds, K. D., Clark, F. A., Palmer, P. H., Gallaher, P., Sun, P., Guo, Q., & Johnson, C. A. (2006). Weight perception and weight-related sociocultural and behavioral factors in Chinese adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 229-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.12.013 Show abstract

2004

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A., Jackson, J. M., & Carlson, M. E. (2004). Occupational science, occupational therapy and evidence-based practice: What the Well Elderly Study has taught us. In M. Molineux (Ed.), Occupation for occupational therapists (pp. 200-218). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Full text

2003

Book Chapters

Larson, E., Wood, W., & Clark, F. A. (2003). Occupational science: Building the science and practice of occupation through an academic discipline. In E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn, & B. A. B. Schell (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (10th ed., pp. 15-26). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Other Articles

Clark, F. A., Carlson, M. E., Jackson, J. M., & Mandel, D. (2003, January 27). Lifestyle Redesign: Improves health and is cost-effective. OT Practice, 8(2), 9-13. Full text

2002

Journal Articles

Hay, J., LaBree, L., Luo, R., Clark, F. A., Carlson, M. E., Mandel, D., Zemke, R., Jackson, J. M., & Azen, S. P. (2002). Cost-effectiveness of preventive occupational therapy for independent-living older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(8), 1381-1388. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50359.x Show abstract

2001

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2001). Editorial. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 8(1), 3-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/11038120118826

Jackson, J. M., Mandel, D., & Clark, F. A. (2001). Promoting quality of life in elders: An occupation based occupational therapy program. World Federation of Occupational Therapy Bulletin.

Clark, F. A., Rubayi, S., Jackson, J. M., Uhles-Tanaka, D., Scott, M., Atkins, M., Gross, K. A., & Carlson, M. E. (2001). The role of daily activities in pressure ulcer development [Guest editorial]. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 14(2), 52-54. Full text Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Azen, S. P., Carlson, M. E., Mandel, D., LaBree, L., Hay, J., Zemke, R., Jackson, J. M., & Lipson, L. (2001). Embedding health-promoting changes into the daily lives of independent-living older adults: Long-term follow-up of occupational therapy intervention. Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(1), 60-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/56.1.P60 Show abstract

2000

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A. (2000). Occupational science. In P. Crist, C. Royeen, & J. Schkade (Eds.), Infusing occupation into practice: Comparison of three clinical approaches in occupational therapy (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (2000). The concepts of habit and routine: A preliminary theoretical synthesis. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20(Suppl. 2000), 123-137.

Jackson, J. M., Kennedy, B. L., Mandel, D., Carlson, M. E., Cherry, B. J., Fanchiang, S. P., Ding, L., Zemke, R., Azen, S. P., LaBree, L., & Clark, F. A. (2000). Derivation and pilot assessment of a health promotion program for Mandarin-speaking Chinese older adults. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 50(2), 127-149. https://doi.org/10.2190/9V9H-E4L7-BTJP-9WMJ Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Sato, T., & Iwama, M. (2000). Towards the construction of a universally acceptable definition of occupation: Occupational science perspective. The Japanese Journal of Occupational Therapy, 34(1), 9-14.

1999

Books

Mandel, D. R., Jackson, J. M., Zemke, R., Nelson, L., & Clark, F. A. (1999). Lifestyle redesign: Implementing the Well Elderly Program. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association. Full text

Journal Articles

Azen, S. P., Palmer, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Mandel, D., Cherry, B. J., Fanchiang, S. P., Jackson, J. M., & Clark, F. A. (1999). Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire in the Well Elderly Study. Journal of Aging and Health, 11(2), 240-251. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826439901100206 Show abstract

1998

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A., Wood, W., & Larson, E. A. (1998). Occupational science: Occupational therapy's legacy for the 21st century. In M. E. Neistadt & E. B. Crepeau (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (9th ed., pp. 13-21). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Journal Articles

Carlson, M. E., Clark, F. A., & Young, B. (1998). Practical contributions of occupational science to the art of successful ageing: How to sculpt a meaningful life in older adulthood. Journal of Occupational Science, 5(3), 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.1998.9686438 Show abstract

Snyder, C., Clark, F. A., Masunaka-Noriega, M., & Young, B. (1998). Los Angeles street kids: New occupations for life program. Journal of Occupational Science, 5(3), 133-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.1998.9686441 Show abstract

Jackson, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Mandel, D., Zemke, R., & Clark, F. A. (1998). Occupation in lifestyle redesign: The Well Elderly Study occupational therapy program. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(5), 326-336. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.52.5.326 Show abstract

1997

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A. (1997). Foreword. In L. D. Parham & L. S. Fazio (Eds.), Play in occupational therapy for children. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (1997). Reflections on the human as an occupational being: Biological need, tempo, and temporality. Journal of Occupational Science: Australia, 4(3), 86-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.1997.9686424 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Azen, S. P., Zemke, R., Jackson, J. M., Carlson, M. E., Mandel, D., Hay, J., Josephson, K., Cherry, B., Hessel, C., Palmer, J., & Lipson, L. (1997). Occupational therapy for independent-living older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(16), 1321-1326. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550160041036 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Carlson, M. E., & Polkinghorne, D. E. (1997). The legitimacy of life history and narrative approaches in the study of occupation [The issue is]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51(4), 313-317. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.51.4.313 Show abstract

1996

Books

Zemke, R., & Clark, F. A. (1996). Occupational science: The evolving discipline. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A., Larson, B., & Richardson, P. (1996). A grounded theory of techniques for occupational storytelling and occupational story making. In R. Zemke & F. Clark (Eds.), Occupational science: The evolving discipline (pp. 373-392). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

Journal Articles

Spitzer, S. L., Smith Roley, S., Clark, F. A., & Parham, D. (1996). Sensory integration: Current trends in the United States. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(3), 123-138. https://doi.org/10.3109/11038129609106695 Show abstract

Carlson, M. E., Fanchiang, S. P., Zemke, R., & Clark, F. A. (1996). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of occupational therapy for older persons. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50(2), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.50.2.89 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Carlson, M. E., Zemke, R., Frank, G., Patterson, K., Ennevor, B. L., Rankin-Martinez, A., Hobson, L. A., Crandall, J., Mandel, D., & Lipson, L. (1996). Life domains and adaptive strategies of a group of low-income, well older adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50(2), 99-108. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.50.2.99 Show abstract

Conference Presentations/Proceedings

Clark, F. A., Gordon, D. M., Mandel, D., McDannel, R., McDonald, A., Meltzer, P., Scroggins, B., Spitzer, S. L., & Young, B. (1996). Occupational science. In P. A. H. Crist & C. B. Royeen (Eds.), Infusing occupation into practice: Comparison of three clinical approaches in occupational therapy [Workshop proceedings of the AOTA Education Special Interest Section, Chicago, IL] (pp. 13-17, 30-34, 40-43, 51-52, 57-59, 101-11). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

1995

Journal Articles

Christiansen, C., Clark, F. A., Kielhofner, G., & Rogers, J. (1995). Position paper: Occupation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49(10), 1015-1018. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.49.10.1015 Show abstract

1993

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A., & Larson, E. A. (1993). Developing an academic discipline: The science of occupation. In H. L. Hopkins & H. D. Smith (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (8th ed., pp. 44-57). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (1993). Occupation embedded in a real life: Interweaving occupational science and occupational therapy [1993 Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(12), 1067-1078. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.47.12.1067 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Zemke, R., Frank, G., Parham, D., Neville-Jan, A. M., Hedricks, C., Carlson, M. E., Fazio, L., & Abreu, B. (1993). Dangers inherent in the partition of occupational therapy and occupational science [The issue is]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(2), 184-186. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.47.2.184

1991

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., Mailloux, Z., Parham, L. D., & Primeau, L. A. (1991). Statement: Occupational therapy provision for children with learning disabilities and/or mild to moderate perceptual and motor deficits. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(12), 1069-1074. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.45.12.1069 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Parham, D., Carlson, M. E., Frank, G., Jackson, J. M., Pierce, D., Wolf, R. J., & Zemke, R. (1991). Occupational science: Academic innovation in the service of occupational therapy's future. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(4), 300-310. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.45.4.300 Show abstract

Carlson, M. E., & Clark, F. A. (1991). The search for useful methodologies in occupational science. The search for useful methodologies in occupational science, 45(3), 235-242. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.45.3.235 Show abstract

Danner, P., & Clark, F. A. (1991). Effectiveness of sensory integrative procedures on four Finnish children with minimal brain dysfunction. Japanese Journal of Sensory Integration Dysfunction, 21(1), 7-16.

1990

Journal Articles

Wiss, T., & Clark, F. A. (1990). Validity of the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test: Misconceptions lead to incorrect conclusions [The issue is]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44(7), 658-659. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.44.7.658 Show abstract

Primeau, L. A., Clark, F. A., & Pierce, D. (1990). Occupational therapy alone has looked upon occupation: Future applications of occupational science to the health care needs of parents and children. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 6(4), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/J003v06n04_05 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., & Jackson, J. M. (1990). The application of the occupational therapy negative heuristic in the treatment of persons with human immunodeficiency infection. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 6(4), 69-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/J003v06n04_08 Show abstract

Yerxa, E., Clark, F. A., Frank, G., Jackson, J. M., Parham, D., Pierce, D., Stein, C., & Zemke, R. (1990). An introduction to occupational science: A foundation for occupational therapy in the 21st century. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 6(4), 1-17. Full text Show abstract

1989

Book Chapters

Clark, F., Mailloux, Z., Parham, L. D., & Bissell, J. (1989). Sensory integration and children with learning disabilities. In P. N. Pratt & A. S. Allen (Eds.), Occupational therapy for children (2nd ed., pp. 457-509). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.

Journal Articles

Jackson, J. M., Rankin, A., Siefken, S., & Clark, F. A. (1989). Options: An occupational therapy transition program for adolescents with developmental disabilities. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 6(2/3), 197-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/J003v06n02_14 Show abstract

Hamilton-Dodd, C., Kawamoto, T., Clark, F. A., Burke, J. P., & Fanchiang, S. P. (1989). The effects of a maternal role preparation program on mother-infant pairs: A pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 43(8), 513-521. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.43.8.513 Show abstract

1988

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., Mack, W., & Pennington, V. (1988). Transition needs assessment of severely disabled high school students and their parents and teachers. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 8(6), 323-344. Full text Show abstract

Clark, F. A., & Primeau, L. (1988). Obfuscation of sensory integration: A matter of professional predation [Comment]. American Journal on Mental Deficiency, 92(5), 415-422. Full text Show abstract

Parush, S., & Clark, F. A. (1988). The reliability and validity of a sensory developmental expectation questionnaire for mothers of newborns. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42(1), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.42.1.11 Show abstract

Conference Presentations/Proceedings

Clark, F. A. (1988). Lessons to be learned: A history of sensory integration research. Paper presented at the First International Conference of Sensory Integration and the Sixth Japanese Conference of Sensory Integrative Dysfunction, Tokyo, Japan.

1987

Journal Articles

Burke, J. P., Clark, F. A., Hamilton-Dodd, C., & Kawamoto, T. (1987). Maternal role preparation: A program using sensory integration, infant-mother attachment and occupational behavior perspectives. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 4(2), 9-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/J003v04n02_03 Show abstract

1986

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (1986). A new concept: Research apprenticeships for occupational therapy researchers [The foundation]. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 40(9), 639-641. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.40.9.639 Show abstract

Conference Presentations/Proceedings

Clark, F. A., & Pierce, D. (1986). Effectiveness studies in sensory integration. In Proceedings of the conference: Occupational therapy for maternal and child health research and leadership development. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Clark, F. A. (1986). Leadership: Converting vision into positive action. In Proceedings of the conference: Occupational therapy for maternal and child health research and leadership development. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Clark, F. A., Hammond, W., & Vulpe, S. (1986). Collaboration: Key to securing needed resources. In Proceedings of the conference: Occupational therapy for maternal and child health research and leadership development. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Clark, F. A. (1986, June). Faculty-student research collaboration. Paper presented at Target 2000, occupational therapy education: Promoting excellence in education, Nashville, TN.

1985

Book Chapters

Mailloux, Z., Knox, S., Burke, J. P., & Clark, F. A. (1985). Pediatric dysfunction. In G. Kielhofner (Ed.), A model of human occupation: Theory and application (pp. 306-351). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., Sharrot, G., Hill, D. J., & Campbell, S. (1985). A comparison of impact of undergraduate and graduate occupational therapy education on professional productivity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 39(3), 155-162. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.39.3.155 Show abstract

Saeki, K., Clark, F. A., & Azen, S. P. (1985). Performance of Japanese and Japanese-American children on the Motor Accuracy-Revised and Design Copying Tests of the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 39(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.39.2.103 Show abstract

1984

Book Chapters

Clark, P. H., Florey, L., & Clark, F. A. (1984). Developmental principles and theories. In P. N. Clark & A. S. Allen (Eds.), Occupational therapy for children (pp. 18-47). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.

Clark, F. A., Mailloux, Z., & Parham, L. D. (1984). Sensory integration and children with learning disabilities. In P. N. Clark & A. S. Allen (Eds.), Occupational therapy for children (pp. 457-509). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.

Clark, F. A. (1984). Evaluating the instrumentation used in research. In J. Morse (Ed.), New dimensions in research for health professionals. Laurel, MD: Ramsco Press.

Journal Articles

Bissell, J. C., & Clark, F. A. (1984). Dichotic listening performance in normal children and adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 38(3), 176-186. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.38.3.176 Show abstract

Clark, F. A., & Sharrott, G. W. (1984). Commentary. Toward an image of one's own: Sources of variation in the role of occupational therapists in psychosocial practice. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 4(1), 24-36. Full text Show abstract

1983

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A. (1983). Research on the neuropathophysiology of autism and its implications for occupational therapy. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 3(1), 3-22. Full text Show abstract

1982

Journal Articles

Benson, J., & Clark, F. A. (1982). A guide for instrument development and validation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(12), 789-800. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.36.12.789 Show abstract

Clark, F. A. (1982). The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities: Considerations of its use in occupational and physical therapy. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 2(4), 29-41. Full text Show abstract

Clark, F. A., & Steingold, L. R. (1982). A potential relationship between occupational therapy and language acquisition. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(1), 42-44. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.36.1.42 Show abstract

Conference Presentations/Proceedings

Clark, F. A., Gabrielli, W. F., Mednick, S. A., & Venables, P. H. (1982). Abstracts of papers which will be presented at the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research [Relationship of electrodermal activity in three-year-olds to their aggression at age eight]. Psychophysiology, 19(5), 554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1982.tb02584.x

1980

Book Chapters

Clark, F. A. (1980). Right and left hemisphere specialization and the laterality and hemispheric dysfunction hypotheses of learning disabilities. In N. B. Tyler (Ed.), Sensory integration topics: Faculty review. Pasadena, CA: CSSID.

Journal Articles

Shuer, J., Clark, F. A., & Azen, S. P. (1980). Vestibular function in mildly mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 34(10), 664-670. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.34.10.664 Show abstract

1978

Journal Articles

Clark, F. A., & Shuer, J. (1978). A clarification of sensory integrative therapy and its application to programming with retarded people. Mental Retardation, 16(3), 227-232. Full text Show abstract

Clark, F. A., Miller, L. R., Thomas, J. A., Kucherawy, D. A., & Azen, S. P. (1978). A comparison of operant and sensory integrative methods on developmental parameters in profoundly retarded adults. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 32(2), 86-92. Full text Show abstract