Yiyang (Sunny) Fang OTD, OTR/L(she/her/hers)
Faculty Mentor: Shawn C. Roll PhD, OTR/L, RMSKS, FAOTA, FAIUM
Year of Entry: 2021
My research interests are focused on prevention of work-related musculoskeletal injuries in the upper extremity and ergonomics to reduce pain and discomfort. I am particularly interested in behavioral prevention strategies to help workers in industries that have high risk for developing work-related injuries. I am currently working on a research project that assesses the risk of musculoskeletal injuries in dental hygiene students.
Doctorate of Occupation Therapy (OTD)
2021 | University of Southern California
Master of Arts (MA)
in Occupational Therapy
2020 | University of Southern California
Bachelor of Science (BS)
in Occupational Therapy
2019 | University of Southern California
Distinguished contribution to Research or Writing in Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy | 2020
USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy
Fang, Y., Baker, N. A., Dole, J., & Roll, S. C. (2021). Quality of carpal tunnel syndrome patient education handouts available on the Internet: A systematic analysis of content and design. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.08.010 Show abstract
Objective. To evaluate the quality of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patient education handouts and identify the best resources for patients and clinicians.
Design. A document content analysis of handouts identified through a systematic internet search using 8 search terms on Google and Bing and a hand search of professional association websites.
Setting. Not Applicable.
Participants. Documents were identified from the top 50 search results across 16 individual searches. Included documents provided general patient education for CTS; descriptive websites, videos, and research studies were excluded.
Interventions. Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures. Content analysis was conducted using the Information Score (IS) tool to evaluate completeness of information [0%-100%], and misleading treatment recommendations were identified. Design analysis was conducted using the Patient Material Assessment Tool (PEMAT-P) [0-100%] and two widely-used readability formulas, Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Using these results, all handouts were rated with a summative 12-point scale.
Results. Of 805 unique search results, we included 56 CTS handouts. The average IS was 74.6% ± 17.9%. 78.6% of the handouts mentioned non-evidence-based treatment recommendations. The average PEMAT-P score was 70.2% ± 10.9% and the average readability grade level was 7.7 ± 1.7. Only 3 handouts were identified as high quality based on the 12-point summative scores, while 22 handouts had mixed quality and 17 handouts had low quality on both content and design.
Conclusions. Findings of this study suggest a lack of high-quality and easily understandable CTS patient education handouts. Most handouts contained unreliable treatment information. Improvements are needed to ensure patients’ ability to understand and manage this condition.
Keywords. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; Health Literacy; Patient Education
Fang, Y., Tung, K. D., Beleno-Sanchez, J., Forrest, J. L., & Roll, S. C. (2020). Characterization of tasks and time efficiency of dental hygiene students during clinical training. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 94(5), 30-37. Full text Show abstract
Purpose. Dental hygiene graduates often experience significant psychological stress while transitioning from the educational setting to clinical practice environments. The purpose of this study was to characterize the duration of dental hygiene activities and tasks and explore efficiency within appointments, by students in educational programs.
Methods. Right-handed female dental hygiene students were recruited from two dental hygiene education programs. Each participant was video recorded while providing patient care during 3 sessions, once per term, over 3 consecutive terms. Activities, tasks, and student postures and positions were coded across the patient visit. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize overall durations and distributions across each category. Time spent on non-dental hygiene related activities was compared to other durations, as well as across the education/training time points and by patient type.
Results. Fifty-three videos were analyzed from nineteen participants. The average patient visit length was 155.06 ± 35.63 minutes; approximately half the visit was dedicated to instrumentation activities. Nearly 20% of the visit was categorized as activities or tasks unrelated to education or patient care. Although most participants completed the patient visit more quickly by the third time point, the percentage of non-dental hygiene activities did not decrease, and there were no associations between patient category type and the duration of the patient visit.
Conclusion. Patient visits were roughly three times the length of the typical dental hygiene care appointment, indicating a disconnect between training and practice. In addition to spending more time on hand scaling tasks, participants spent a lot of time on equipment setup and interacting with or waiting for faculty members. These findings have implications for improving efficiency in educational settings, particularly to facilitate a successful transition to clinical practice.
Fang, Y., Roll, S. C., Baker, N., & Dole, J. E. (2021). Quality of patient education handouts for carpal tunnel syndrome available on the Internet. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(Supplement_2), 7512510265. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2021.75S2-RP265 Show abstract
Accepted for AOTA INSPIRE 2021 but unable to be presented due to online event limitations.
This study systematically located and evaluated 56 patient education handouts for carpal tunnel syndrome. Handouts were reviewed for overall quality on the basis of completeness and accuracy of the content and readability for patients. Our findings point to strengths and limitations of educational materials and identified the best patient resources for OT practitioners.